absaoss / commons   2.0.0

Apache License 2.0 GitHub

Selection of useful reusable components

Scala versions: 2.13 2.12 2.11

ABSA Commons

Selection of useful reusable components

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Switch the codebase to the required Scala version.

By default, Scala 2.11 is used. To build Commons for another Scala version, switch to the required Scala version first.

# E.g. to switch to Scala 2.13 use
mvn scala-cross-build:change-version -Pscala-2.13

Build the project

When building the project activate a Scala profile corresponding to the Scala version of the codebase.

# E.g. for Scala 2.13 use
mvn clean install -Pscala-2.13

Building for all supported Scala versions


Measuring code coverage

./mvn clean verify -Pcode-coverage 

Code coverage will be generated on path:


Type extensions


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.AnyExtension._

// Optionally call a method in a chain
new MyBuilder
  .optionally(_.withZ, maybeZ) // <---- withZ is called with a `value` if `maybeZ` is `Some(value)`
  .optionally(_.withABC(a, _, c), maybeB) // <---- it also works with n-ary methods

// Alternatively `having()` method can be used. It does the same thing as `optionally()`,
// but because of re-arranged method parameters it's easier for the compiler to infer types.
// See: https://github.com/AbsaOSS/commons/issues/56
new MyBuilder
// Conditionally call a method in a chain
new MyBuilder

// ...same as `when()` but with inverted condition
new MyBuilder


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.ArrayExtension._

val arr = Array(1, 2, 3)

// removes duplicates in an array;
// an argument to distinctBy is a function which projects each array value into another value
// that is used to determine whether two elements are duplicated
val duplicatesEliminated = arr.distinctBy(identity)


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.IteratorExtension._

val iter: Iterator[_] = ???
val arr: Array[_] = ???

// copy 42 items from the `iter` to the `arr` with array offset 7
iter.fetchToArray(arr, 7, 42) // returns a number of actually copied items


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.NonOptionExtension._

// returns the object as Some(_) if anyNonOptionObject is not null, None otherwise


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.OptionExtension._

val someOption = Some("abc")

// returns Success("abc")
someOption.toTry(new Exception)

val noneOption = None
val e = new Exception

// returns Failure(e)


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.SeqExtension._

Seq(1, 2, 2, 2, 1).groupConsecutiveBy[Int](a => a) // Seq(Seq(1), Seq(2, 2, 2), Seq(1))
Seq(1, 2, 2, 2, 1).groupConsecutiveBy[Int](a => 1) // Seq(Seq(1, 2, 2, 2, 1))
Seq(1, 24, 27, 2, 1).groupConsecutiveBy[Int](a => a.toString.length) // Seq(Seq(1), Seq(24, 27), Seq(2, 1))

Seq(1, 2, 2, 2, 1).groupConsecutiveByPredicate(a => a == 2) // Seq(Seq(1), Seq(2, 2, 2), Seq(1))
Seq(1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 1).groupConsecutiveByPredicate(a => a == 2) // Seq(Seq(1, 1), Seq(2), Seq(2), Seq(4), Seq(1))

Seq(1, 24, 27, 2, 1).groupConsecutiveByOption[Int](
  a => if(a.toString.length > 1) Some(a.toString.length) else None
) // Seq(Seq(1), Seq(24, 27), Seq(2), Seq(1))


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.StringExtension._

"abcba".replaceChars(Map('a' -> 'b', 'b' -> 'a')) // "bacab"

"Hello world".findFirstUnquoted(Set('w', 'e', 'l'), Set.empty) // Some(1)
"Hello world".findFirstUnquoted(Set('w'), Set.empty) // Some(6)
"Hello world".findFirstUnquoted(Set('a'), Set.empty) // None
"Hello `w`orld".findFirstUnquoted(Set('w'), '`') // None
"Hello `world".findFirstUnquoted(Set('w'), '`') // Some(7)
"`Hello` \\'world".findFirstUnquoted(Set('w', 'e', 'l'), Set('\'', '`')) // Some(10)

"Hello world".hasUnquoted(Set('w', 'e', 'l'), Set('`')) // true
"`Hello world`".hasUnquoted(Set('w', 'e', 'l'), Set('`')) // false

"Lorem i ipsum".countUnquoted(Set('o', 'i'), Set.empty) // Map('o' -> 1, 'i' -> 2)
"Lorem `i` ipsum".countUnquoted(Set('o', 'i'), Set('`')) // Map('o' -> 1, 'i' -> 1)

"aaa" / "123" // "aaa/123"
"aaa/" / "123" // "aaa/123"

"a".nonEmptyOrElse("b") // "a"
"".nonEmptyOrElse("b") // "b"

"".coalesce("A", "") // "A"
"".coalesce("", "", "B", "", "C") // "B"
"X".coalesce("Y", "Z") // "X"

(null: String).nonBlankOption // None
"            ".nonBlankOption // None
" foo bar 42 ".nonBlankOption // Some(" foo bar 42 ")


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.TraversableExtension._

Traversable(1, 2, 3).toNonEmptyOption // Some(Traversable(1, 2, 3))
Traversable().toNonEmptyOption // None


import za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.TraversableOnceExtension._

List(1, 2).distinctBy(identity) // List(1, 2)
List(1, 2, 1).distinctBy(identity) // List(1, 2)
List(1, 2, 1, 0, 5).distinctBy(a => a % 2) // List(1, 2)

Collection implicits

Warning: these are deprecated.

Use type-specific ...Extension instead, for example, za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.IteratorExtension.

import CollectionImplicits._

val iter: Iterator[_] = ???
val arr: Array[_] = ???

// copy 42 items from the `iter` to the `arr` with array offset 7
iter.fetchToArray(arr, 7, 42) // returns a number of actually copied items
import CollectionImplicits._

// Get distinct elements by only comparing certain property(-es)
val xs = Seq(
   Foo(x = 1, ...), // A
   Foo(x = 2, ...), // B
   Foo(x = 1, ...), // C
   Foo(x = 2, ...), // D
   Foo(x = 3, ...), // E
xs.distinctBy(_.x) // returns elements A, B, E

Graph Utils

Topological sorting (DAG only)

val myNodes: Seq[MyNode] = ??? // an arbitrary sequence of objects that can represent graph nodes 

// import extension methods
import za.co.absa.commons.graph.GraphImplicits._

val sortedNodes = myNodes.sortedTopologicallyBy(_.id, _.refIds) // arguments are functions that return a self ID and outbound IDs for every node in the collection 

// ... or using implicit `DAGNodeIDMapping` instance instead of explicitly passing mapping functions as arguments

implicit object MyNodeIdMapping extends DAGNodeIdMapping[MyNode, NodeId] {
   override def selfId(n: MyNode): NodeId = ???
   override def refIds(n: MyNode): Traversable[NodeId] = ???

val sortedNodes = myNodes.sortedTopologically()

Abstract Converters

A simple stackable Converter trait with a simple memoized wrapper.


// 1. Define your converter
class AlchemicalConverter extends Converter {
  override type From = Lead
  override type To   = Gold
  override def convert(arg: Lead): Gold = ??? // treat with dragon eyes and cosmic rays

// 2. Instantiate it
val forge = new AlchemicalConverter
// or a memoized variant
val forge = new AlchemicalConverter with CachingConverter

// 3. Use it
forge.convert(... some lead ...) // returns some gold

Type constraints

Utility object that defines extended type constraints to be used in Scala type definitions. In particular it defines a not type constraint.


trait VegetarianMenu {
  def add[A <: Food : not[Meat]#λ](food: A)

Option implicits

Warning: these are deprecated.

Use type-specific ...Extension instead, for example, za.co.absa.commons.lang.extensions.StringExtension.

// Strings
(null: String).nonBlankOption // == None
"  \t \n \r  ".nonBlankOption // == None
"foo bar".nonBlankOption // == Some("foo bar")

// Collections
Seq.empty.asOption // == None
Seq(1, 2).asOption // == Some(Seq(1, 2))

// Just another way of doing Option(foo)

// Optionally call a method in a chain
new MyBuilder
  .optionally(_.withZ, maybeZ) // <---- withZ is called with a `value` if `maybeZ` is `Some(value)`
  .optionally(_.withABC(a, _, c), maybeB) // <---- it also works with n-ary methods

// Alternatively `having()` method can be used. It does the same thing as `optionally()`,
// but because of re-arranged method parameters it's easier for the compiler to infer types.
// See: https://github.com/AbsaOSS/commons/issues/56
new MyBuilder


Parses a connection string containing one or multiple URIs into a list of strings (each being one URI). Input URIs are supposed to have semi-colon-separated base URIs, and each can have multiple comma-separated hosts.

val connectionString = "https://localhost:8080,host2:8080/rest_api;http://localhost:9000/rest_api"

// List("https://localhost:8080/rest_api", "https://host2:8080/rest_api", "http://localhost:9000/rest_api")

Commons Configuration


Useful methods for org.apache.commons.configuration.Configuration.

import za.co.absa.commons.config.ConfigurationImplicits._

// return value or throw

// return Some(value) or None

// return Map("conf.key1" -> 123, "conf.key2" -> 456)

Available for String, Array[String], Boolean, BigDecimal, Byte, Short, Int, Float, Long and Double.

Configuration sub-classes


This is an extension of EnvironmentConfiguration that converts key names between dot-separated camelCase notation and UPPER_SNAKE_CASE notation which is common for naming environment variables.

See: #54

// Any of the following calls returns a value of FOO_BAR_BAZ environment variable
(new UpperSnakeCaseEnvironmentConfiguration).getString("foo.bar.baz")
(new UpperSnakeCaseEnvironmentConfiguration).getString("fooBarBaz")
(new UpperSnakeCaseEnvironmentConfiguration).getString("foo.barBaz")

Typed Configuration

Trait ConfTyped provides a DSL for creating a typed hierarchical configuration object. It provides access to two main abstractions: Conf and Prop


import za.co.absa.commons.config._

object MyAppConfig extends ConfTyped {
   val confSource: java.util.Properties = ???

   override val rootPrefix = "com.example"

   object Foo extends Conf("foo") {
      object Bar extends Conf("bar") {
         val baz: String = confSource getProperty Prop("baz")
         val qux: String = confSource getProperty Prop("qux")

// somewhere in your application

import MyAppConfig._

val baz = Foo.Bar.baz // mapped to the key "com.example.foo.bar.baz" in the <code>confSource</code>
val baz = Foo.Bar.qux // mapped to the key "com.example.foo.bar.qux" in the <code>confSource</code>

Note that ConfTyped doesn't impose or depend on the way how the configuration values are loaded. It only provides a convenient way to implicitly construct the configuration key names from the nested object structure.

The key names are obtained by calling Prop("...") method. It returns a full property key name that reflects the nesting structure of the Conf instances' names, concatenated with dot (.) and prefixed with the rootPrefix if one is provided.

Another example of usage ConfTyped:

val props = new java.util.Properties with ConfTyped {
   val foo = new Conf("foo") {
      val bar = new Conf("bar") {
         lazy val baz = getProperty(Prop("baz"))

props.put("foo.bar.baz", "42")

println(props.foo.bar.baz) // prints 42

Reflection Utils


Get direct sub-types of a sealed type
ReflectionUtils.directSubClassesOf[Food] // == Seq(classOf[Vegetables], classOf[Meat], classOf[Fish])
Get object instances extending a sealed type
ReflectionUtils.objectsOf[Currency] // == Seq(classOf[EUR], classOf[USD], classOf[CZK])
Get object instance by it's full type name (similar to Class.forName(...), but for objects)
ReflectionUtils.objectForName[MySingleton]("com.example.MySingleton") // == MySingleton
objectForName with more descriptive exception message in case there is something wrong with provided name.
ReflectionUtils.objectForNameWithDescriptiveException[MySingleton]("com.example.MySingleton") // == MySingleton
Get private field value of an arbitrary class. (a typed variant of field.get(o).asInstanceOf[T])
ReflectionUtils.extractFieldValue[Int](foo, "bar")
// or if you know a type where the field is declared
ReflectionUtils.extractFieldValue[Doh, Int](foo, "bar")
Extract object properties as a key-value map
case class Person(name: String, age: Int, sex: Sex)
val aPerson = Person("Alex", 41, Male)

ReflectionUtils.extractProperties(aPerson) // == Map("name" -> "Alex, "age" -> 42, "sex" -> Male)
Extract a case class argument default value (if exists)
case class Button(title: String, isPressed = false)
ReflectionUtils.caseClassCtorArgDefaultValue[Int](classOf[Button], "name") // == None
ReflectionUtils.caseClassCtorArgDefaultValue[Int](classOf[Button], "isPressed") // == Some(false)
Get all interfaces/traits of a given class including inherited ones
// or

Enumeration macros

Obtain all instances of a sealed trait

Can be used to e.g. in a Case Object Enumeration pattern.

A similar solution and the motivation is well describes in the Scala Enumerations hell article. But unlike the above approach EnumerationMacros.sealedInstancesOf utilizes Scala compiler macros, so that the instances are lookup at the compile time.

  sealed trait Color
  object Color {
    // returns Set(Red, Green, Blue)
    val values: Set[Color] = EnumerationMacros.sealedInstancesOf[Color]

    case object Red extends Color
    case object Green extends Color
    case object Blue extends Color

Run-time compilation

If you wants some code to be linked and executed at run-time, here's a simple way to do it:

val fn = ReflectionUtils.compile(q""" some scala code """)

Of with input parameters:

val fn = ReflectionUtils.compile(q"""
  val foo = arg("foo")
  val bar = arg("bar")
  foo + bar
fn(Map("foo" -> ..., "bar" -> ...))

Run-time value extractors

Sometimes you need to support different versions of some library with a breaking changes in API. If there aren't too many breaking changes, or you only use a certain subset of an API then creating a proper adapter layer could be an overkill. In that case simple run-time evaluation could be a decent alternative:

Getting a value of from an accessor by name
object FilenameExtractor extends AccessorMethodValueExtractor[String]("filename", "name", "file")

val FilenameExtractor(fileName) = someObjectRepresentingAFile
// The first matching accessor name with type wins
Safely matching on a type that might be missing at run-time.

If you try to pattern-match on a type that is missing from the classpath at runtime (e.g. optional dependency) you'll get NoClassDefFoundError. Though it looks strange as from the use case perspective if there is no Foo class there couldn't be a Foo instance. Logically one would expect it to just not match, but in fact it throws.

aObject match {
  case foo: Foo => // <----- this could throw NoClassDefFoundError !!

To get a desired behavior you can use SafeTypeMatchingExtractor:

object FooExtractor extends SafeTypeMatchingExtractor("com.example.Foo")

aObject {
 case FooExtractor(foo) => // do something with `foo`

or you can even make a fancy DSL from it:

object `_: Foo` extends SafeTypeMatchingExtractor("com.example.Foo")

aObject {
  case `_: Foo`(foo) => // do something with `foo`

A project Build Info Utils

A singleton that parses build.properties from the classpath and return version and timestamp as constants.


Copy build.properties.template file and paste in into your classpath root as build.properties. Make sure the resource filtering is enabled on your project build. Then you can access it's content as simply as this:

BuildInfo.Version // returns `build.version` property from the `build.properties` file
BuildInfo.Timestamp // returns `build.timestamp` property from the `build.properties` file
BuildInfo.BuildProps // returns entire `build.properties` content as immutable Java `Properties`

Other ways of usage & customization

If needed, you can customize a build.properties resource path and/or the property mapping.

Custom .properties file
// loads '/foo/bar.properties' from the classpath
object MyBuildInfo extends BuildInfo(resourcePrefix = "/foo/bar")
Custom property mapping
object MyBuildInfo extends BuildInfo(propMapping = PropMapping(
  version = "bld.ver",  // binds "Version" field to "bld.ver" property
  timestamp = "bld.ttt" // binds "Timestamp" field to "bld.ttt" property

You can also use apply() method instead of inheritance. It all depends on your preferred code style:

val myBuildInfo = BuildInfo(...)

Error handling utils

Client/Server error cross-linking

In client-server application the errors sent to a client is often sanitised for privacy and security reasons. This however complicates troubleshooting because it's difficult to find a much between a client error message and the corresponding exception details in the server logs.

One way to solve this issue is to generate a unique identifier that is then incorporated into the server log on one hand, and is sent to the client along with a client friendly error message on the other hand. Such unique ID will be easy to lookup in logs, and will precisely identify the root cause of the error seen by the client.

// somewhere on the server
try {
} catch {
  case NonFatal(e) =>
    import za.co.absa.commons.error
    val errorRef = ErrorRef(e, "oops!")   

This way the exception e is silently logged into the server logs with the message

[ERROR] ... ERROR_ID [123e4567-e89b-12d3-a456-426614174000] oops!
            caused by: NullPointerException in ...
            <stack trace>

... while the client receives a serialized representation that only contains the error UUID, timestamp and the message "oops!".

For example:

   "errorId": "123e4567-e89b-12d3-a456-426614174000",
   "timestamp": 1611945666787,
   "message": "oops!"

IO Utils

Temporary file/directory

An easy way to create a temporary file or directory with the support for automatic recursive deletion (as rm -rf) on JVM shutdown.


val myTmpFile: Path = TempFile.deleteOnExit.path
val myTmpDir: Path = TempDirectory.deleteOnExit.path

val myTmpFile: String = TempFile.deleteOnExit.asString
val myTmpDir: String = TempDirectory.deleteOnExit.asSTring

val myTmpFile: URI = TempFile.deleteOnExit.toURI
val myTmpDir: URI = TempDirectory.deleteOnExit.toURI

It also mimics Java IO API for a similar purpose

TempFile("myPrefix", "mySuffix")


An object containing useful functions that operate on local file system.


val doesExist = LocalFileSystemUtils.localExists("/user/u1/somefile") // true if this file exists, false otherwise

if(doesExist) {
  val fileContent = LocalFileSystemUtils.readLocalFile("/user/u1/somefile") // full file as string

val tildeReplaced = LocalFileSystemUtils.replaceHome("~/Projects/somedir") // path with replaces tilde with home directory path

JSON (Json4s) Utils

A set of stackable traits, serving a wrapper around the way how Json4s (de)serializers are created. Instead of relying on implicit Formats objects a stackable traits are used. This API is also binary compatible to Json4s 3.2 and 3.3+ versions (Jackson and Native)


There are two default SerDe implementation that you can use out of the box:

  • DefaultJacksonJsonSerDe
  • DefaultNativeJsonSerDe
class MyApp extends App with DefaultJacksonJsonSerDe {
  FooBar.toJson // returns JSON string
  FooBar.toPrettyJson // returns formatted JSON string
  "{...}".fromJson[FooBar] // returns a FooBar instance

Or you can create a singleton and use that instead:

object JsonSerDe extends DefaultNativeJsonSerDe
import JsonSerDe._

If you want another parser impl, then you do this:

object MyJsonSerDe 
  extends AbstractJsonSerDe[MyJson]
  with my.JsonMethods
  with DefaultFormatsBuilder

import MyJsonSerDe._

If you want custom formats then instead of mixing in DefaultFormatsBuilder simply override def formats method.

Version Utils

A simple utility that parses version strings. It supports SemVer 2.0 as well as a simple dot-separated version format. Can be used to compare the versions, for instance when implementing version predicates.


import Version._

require(Version.asSimple(SPARK_VERSION) > ver"2.4")
// or
require(Version.asSemVer(SomeLibVersion) > semver"1.2.3-beta.2")

To get a string representation from a Version instance asString extension method can be used:

val myVer: Version = semver"1.2.3-beta.2+777.42"
myVer.asString  // returns "1.2.3-beta.2+777.42"

Semantic Versioning specific operations:

import Version._

val myVer = semver"111.222.333-alpha.444+build.555"

myVer.major      == 111
myVer.minor      == 222
myVer.patch      == 333
myVer.core       == semver"111.222.333"
myVer.preRelease == ver"alpha.444"
myVer.buildMeta  == ver"build.555"

S3 Utils

S3 Location Utils

Provides simple means of checking a string to appear to be a valid S3 Location and parsing it into a S3Location. That way, one can easily obtain the protocol, bucketName, and path.

import za.co.absa.commons.s3._
import za.co.absa.commons.s3.SimpleS3Location._

"s3a://mybucket.some.where/my/path1".isValidS3Path // yields true

val s3loc: S3Location = "s3://mybucket-123/path/to/file.ext".toSimpleS3Location.get
s3loc.protocol // holds "s3"
s3loc.bucketName // holds "mybucket-123"
s3loc.path // holds "path/to/file.ext"

"s3x://bogus#$%/xxx".toSimpleS3Location // yields None

"s3a://mybucket.some/my/path1".withTrailSlash // yields SimpleS3Location("s3a", "mybucket.some", "my/path1/")
"s3a://mybucket.some/my/path1/".withoutTrailSlash // yields SimpleS3Location("s3a", "mybucket.some", "my/path1")

Copyright 2019 ABSA Group Limited

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at


Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.