Generic programming for Scala

shapeless: generic programming for Scala

Discord Gitter Maven Central Scala.js

shapeless is a type class and dependent type based generic programming library for Scala.

This repository contains shapeless 3 for Scala 3. For shapeless 2 see its own repository.

Please open issues and PRs for shapeless 2 in the old repository.

shapeless 3 was developed as part of a collaboration with Martin Odersky's group at EPFL LAMP to develop language-level support for generic programming for Scala 3. shapeless 3 is included in the Dotty Community Build.

Current status

Included so far is a full implementation of type class derivation as flexible as that of shapeless 2, but generalized across kinds. For derivation of regular ADTs and type classes compile- and runtime performance are dramatically improved over shapeless 2. This comes with a significantly reduced binary footprint in client code.

Support is provided for deriving type classes indexed by types of kinds * (eg. Monoid, Eq, Show), * -> * (eg. Functor, Traverse, Monad) (* -> *) -> *), (eg. FunctorK, aka HFunctor in Haskell) and * -> * -> * (eg. Bifunctor). Support for additional kinds can be added fairly straightforwardly with a small amount of additional boilerplate for each kind.

The first two of these kinds equal the power of shapeless 2's Generic and Generic1 (see their use in the Kittens type class derivation library for Cats). The remainder go considerably beyond.

Using shapeless 3 the derivation of a monoid for a Scala ADT is as simple as,

import shapeless3.deriving.*

// Type class definition, eg. from Cats
trait Monoid[A]:
  def empty: A
  def combine(x: A, y: A): A
  extension (x: A) def |+| (y: A): A = combine(x, y)

object Monoid:
  given Monoid[Unit] with
    def empty: Unit = ()
    def combine(x: Unit, y: Unit): Unit = ()

  given Monoid[Boolean] with
    def empty: Boolean = false
    def combine(x: Boolean, y: Boolean): Boolean = x || y

  given Monoid[Int] with
    def empty: Int = 0
    def combine(x: Int, y: Int): Int = x+y

  given Monoid[String] with
    def empty: String = ""
    def combine(x: String, y: String): String = x+y

  given monoidGen[A](using inst: K0.ProductInstances[Monoid, A]): Monoid[A] with
    def empty: A =
      inst.construct([t] => (ma: Monoid[t]) => ma.empty)
    def combine(x: A, y: A): A =
      inst.map2(x, y)([t] => (mt: Monoid[t], t0: t, t1: t) => mt.combine(t0, t1))

  inline def derived[A](using gen: K0.ProductGeneric[A]): Monoid[A] = monoidGen

// ADT definition
case class ISB(i: Int, s: String, b: Boolean) derives Monoid
val a = ISB(23, "foo", true)
val b = ISB(13, "bar", false)

val c = a |+| b // == ISB(36, "foobar", true)

A similar derivation for Functor allows the following,

enum Opt[+A] derives Functor: 
  case Sm[+A](value: A)
  case Nn

Sm("foo").map(_.length) // == Sm(3)

We can even derive higher order functors in almost exactly the same way,

// An Option like type, with a default
enum OptionD[T]:
  case Given(value: T)
  case Default(value: T)

  def fold: T = this match {
    case Given(t) => t
    case Default(t) => t
  }

object OptionD:
  val fold: OptionD ~> Id = [t] => (ot: OptionD[t]) => ot.fold

// A data type parameterized with an effect
case class OrderF[F[_]](
  item: F[String],
  quantity: F[Int]
) derives FunctorK

val incompleteOrder = OrderF(Given("Epoisse"), Default(1))
val completeOrder = FunctorK[OrderF].mapK(incompleteOrder)(OptionD.fold)
// == OrderF[Id]("Epoisse", 1)

Getting started

shapeless 3 is available for Scala 3.0.0 for the JVM and for Scala.js 1.5.0+. To include the deriving module in your project add the following to your build,

libraryDependencies ++= Seq("org.typelevel" %% "shapeless3-deriving" % "3.0.1")

Finding out more about the project

shapeless is part of the Typelevel family of projects. It is an Open Source project under the Apache License v2, hosted on GitHub. Binary artefacts are published to the Sonatype OSS Repository Hosting service and synced to Maven Central.

Most discussion of shapeless and generic programming in Scala happens on the shapeless channel of the Typelevel Discord.

Participation

The shapeless project supports the Scala Code of Conduct and wants all of its channels (Gitter, github, etc.) to be welcoming environments for everyone.