memsql / singlestore-spark-connector   2.0.7

Apache License 2.0 GitHub

A connector for MemSQL and Spark

Scala versions: 2.12 2.11 2.10

SingleStoreDB Spark Connector

Version: 4.1.5 License

Getting Started

You can find the latest version of the connector on Maven Central and spark-packages.org. The group is com.singlestore and the artifact is singlestore-spark-connector_2.11 for Spark 2 and singlestore-spark-connector_2.12 for Spark 3.

You can add the connector to your Spark application using: spark-shell, pyspark, or spark-submit

$SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.singlestore:singlestore-spark-connector_2.12:4.1.5-spark-3.5.0

We release multiple versions of the singlestore-spark-connector, one for each supported Spark version. The connector follows the x.x.x-spark-y.y.y naming convention, where x.x.x represents the connector version and y.y.y represents the corresponding Spark version. For example, in connector 4.1.5-spark-3.5.0, 4.1.5 is the version of the connector, compiled and tested against Spark version 3.5.0. It is critical to select the connector version that corresponds to the Spark version in use.

Configuration

The singlestore-spark-connector is configurable globally via Spark options and locally when constructing a DataFrame. The options are named the same, however global options have the prefix spark.datasource.singlestore..

Basic options

Option Default value Description
ddlEndpoint (On-Premise deployment) (required) - The hostname or IP address of the SingleStoreDB Master Aggregator in the host[:port] format, where port is an optional parameter. Example: master-agg.foo.internal:3308 or master-agg.foo.internal.
dmlEndpoints (On-Premise deployment) ddlEndpoint The hostname or IP address of SingleStoreDB Aggregator nodes to run queries against in the host[:port],host[:port],... format, where :port is an optional parameter (multiple hosts separated by comma). Example: child-agg:3308,child-agg2.
clientEndpoint (Cloud deployment) (required) - The hostname or IP address to the SingleStoreDB Cloud workspace to run queries against in the format host[:port] (port is optional). Ex. svc-b093ff56-7d9e-499f-b970-7913852facc4-ddl.aws-oregon-2.svc.singlestore.com:3306
user root The SingleStoreDB username.
password - Password of the SingleStoreDB user.
query - The query to run (mutually exclusive with dbtable).
dbtable - The table to query (mutually exclusive with query).
database - If set, all connections use the specified database by default.

Read options

Option Default value Description
disablePushdown false Disable SQL Pushdown when running queries.
enableParallelRead automaticLite Enables reading data in parallel for some query shapes. It can have of the following values: disabled, automaticLite, automatic, and forced. For more information, see Parallel Read Support.
parallelRead.Features ReadFromAggregators,ReadFromAggregatorsMaterialized Specifies a comma separated list of parallel read features that are tried in the order they are listed. We support the following features: ReadFromLeaves, ReadFromAggregators, and ReadFromAggregatorsMaterialized. Example: ReadFromAggregators,ReadFromAggregatorsMaterialized. For more information, see Parallel Read Support.
parallelRead.tableCreationTimeoutMS 0 Specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) the reader waits for the result table creation when using the ReadFromAggregators feature. If set to 0, timeout is disabled.
parallelRead.materializedTableCreationTimeoutMS 0 Specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) the reader waits for the result table creation when using the ReadFromAggregatorsMaterialized feature. If set to 0, timeout is disabled.
parallelRead.maxNumPartitions 0 Specifies the Maximum number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame. If set to 0, no limit is applied.
parallelRead.repartition false Repartition data before reading.
parallelRead.repartition.columns RAND() Specifies a comma separated list of columns that are used for repartitioning (when parallelRead.repartition is enabled). By default, an additional column with RAND() value is used for repartitioning.

Write options

Option Default value Description
overwriteBehavior dropAndCreate Specifies the behavior during Overwrite. It can have one of the following values: dropAndCreate, truncate, merge.
truncate false ⚠️ This option is deprecated, please use overwriteBehavior instead. Truncates instead of dropping an existing table during Overwrite.
loadDataCompression Gzip Compresses data on load. It can have one of the following three values: GZip, LZ4, and Skip.
loadDataFormat CSV Serializes data on load. It can have one of the following values: Avro or CSV.
tableKey - Specifies additional keys to add to tables created by the connector. See Specifying keys for tables created by the Spark Connector for more information.
onDuplicateKeySQL - If this option is specified and a new row with duplicate PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE index is inserted, SingleStoreDB performs an UPDATE operation on the existing row. See Inserting rows into the table with ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE for more information.
insertBatchSize 10000 Specifies the size of the batch for row insertion.
maxErrors 0 The maximum number of errors in a single LOAD DATA request. When this limit is reached, the load fails. If this property is set to 0, no error limit exists.
createRowstoreTable rowstore If enabled, the connector creates a rowstore table.

Connection pool options

Option Default value Description
driverConnectionPool.Enabled true Enables using of connection pool on the driver. (default: true)
driverConnectionPool.MaxOpenConns -1 The maximum number of active connections with the same options that can be allocated from the driver pool at the same time, or negative for no limit. (default: -1)
driverConnectionPool.MaxIdleConns 8 The maximum number of connections with the same options that can remain idle in the driver pool, without extra ones being released, or negative for no limit. (default: 8)
driverConnectionPool.MinEvictableIdleTimeMs 30000 (30 sec) The minimum amount of time an object may sit idle in the driver pool before it is eligible for eviction by the idle object evictor (if any). (default: 30000 - 30 sec)
driverConnectionPool.TimeBetweenEvictionRunsMS 1000 (1 sec) The number of milliseconds to sleep between runs of the idle object evictor thread on the driver. When non-positive, no idle object evictor thread will be run. (default: 1000 - 1 sec)
driverConnectionPool.MaxWaitMS -1 The maximum number of milliseconds that the driver pool will wait (when there are no available connections) for a connection to be returned before throwing an exception, or -1 to wait indefinitely. (default: -1)
driverConnectionPool.MaxConnLifetimeMS -1 The maximum lifetime in milliseconds of a connection. After this time is exceeded the connection will fail the next activation, passivation, or validation test and won’t be returned by the driver pool. A value of zero or less means the connection has an infinite lifetime. (default: -1)
executorConnectionPool.Enabled true Enables using of connection pool on executors. (default: true)
executorConnectionPool.MaxOpenConns true The maximum number of active connections with the same options that can be allocated from the executor pool at the same time, or negative for no limit. (default: true)
executorConnectionPool.MaxIdleConns 8 The maximum number of connections with the same options that can remain idle in the executor pool, without extra ones being released, or negative for no limit. (default: 8)
executorConnectionPool.MinEvictableIdleTimeMs 2000 The minimum amount of time an object may sit idle in the executor pool before it is eligible for eviction by the idle object evictor (if any). (default: 2000 - 2 sec)
executorConnectionPool.TimeBetweenEvictionRunsMS 1000 The number of milliseconds to sleep between runs of the idle object evictor thread on the executor. When non-positive, no idle object evictor thread will be run. (default: 1000 - 1 sec)
executorConnectionPool.MaxWaitMS -1 The maximum number of milliseconds that the executor pool will wait (when there are no available connections) for a connection to be returned before throwing an exception, or -1 to wait indefinitely. (default: -1)
executorConnectionPool.MaxConnLifetimeMS -1 The maximum lifetime in milliseconds of a connection. After this time is exceeded the connection will fail the next activation, passivation, or validation test and won’t be returned by the executor pool. A value of zero or less means the connection has an infinite lifetime. (default: -1)

Examples

Configure singlestore-spark-connector for SingleStoreDB Cloud

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector globally:

spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.clientEndpoint", "singlestore-host")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "admin")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.password", "s3cur3-pa$$word")

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector using the read API:

val df = spark.read
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("clientEndpoint", "singlestore-host")
    .option("user", "admin")
    .load("foo")

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector using an external table in Spark SQL:

CREATE TABLE bar USING singlestore OPTIONS ('clientEndpoint'='singlestore-host','dbtable'='foo.bar')

note: singlestore-spark-connectordoesn't support writing to the reference table for SingleStoreDB Cloud note: singlestore-spark-connectordoesn't support read-only databases for SingleStoreDB Cloud

Configure singlestore-spark-connector for SingleStoreDB On-Premises

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector globally:

spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.dmlEndpoints", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal,singlestore-child-1.cluster.internal:3307")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "admin")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.password", "s3cur3-pa$$word")

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector using the read API:

val df = spark.read
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
    .option("user", "admin")
    .load("foo")

The following example configures the singlestore-spark-connector using an external table in Spark SQL:

CREATE TABLE bar USING singlestore OPTIONS ('ddlEndpoint'='singlestore-master.cluster.internal','dbtable'='foo.bar')

For Java/Python versions of some of these examples, visit the section "Java & Python Example"

Writing to SingleStoreDB

The singlestore-spark-connector supports saving dataframes to SingleStoreDB using the Spark write API. Here is a basic example of using this API:

df.write
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("loadDataCompression", "LZ4")
    .option("overwriteBehavior", "dropAndCreate")
    .mode(SaveMode.Overwrite)
    .save("foo.bar") // in format: database.table

If the target table ("foo" in the example above) does not exist in SingleStoreDB the singlestore-spark-connector will automatically attempt to create the table. If you specify SaveMode.Overwrite, if the target table already exists, it will be recreated or truncated before load. Specify overwriteBehavior = truncate to truncate rather than re-create.

Retrieving the number of written rows from taskMetrics

It is possible to add the listener and get the number of written rows.

spark.sparkContext.addSparkListener(new SparkListener() {
  override def onTaskEnd(taskEnd: SparkListenerTaskEnd) {
    println("Task id: " + taskEnd.taskInfo.id.toString)
    println("Records written: " + taskEnd.taskMetrics.outputMetrics.recordsWritten.toString)
  }
})

df.write.format("singlestore").save("example")

Specifying keys for tables created by the Spark Connector

When creating a table, the singlestore-spark-connector will read options prefixed with tableKey. These options must be formatted in a specific way in order to correctly specify the keys.

⚠️ The default table type is a SingleStoreDB columnstore. To create a rowstore table instead, enable the createRowstoreTable option.

To explain we will refer to the following example:

df.write
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("tableKey.primary", "id")
    .option("tableKey.key.created_firstname", "created, firstName")
    .option("tableKey.unique", "username")
    .mode(SaveMode.Overwrite)
    .save("foo.bar") // in format: database.table

In this example, we are creating three keys:

  1. A primary key on the id column
  2. A regular key on the combination of the firstname and created columns, with the key name created_firstname
  3. A unique key on the username column

Note on (2): Any key can optionally specify a name, just put it after the key type. Key names must be unique.

To change the default ColumnStore sort key you can specify it explicitly:

df.write
    .option("tableKey.columnstore", "id")

You can also customize the shard key like so:

df.write
    .option("tableKey.shard", "id, timestamp")

Inserting rows into the table with ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE

When updating a table it is possible to insert rows with ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE option. See sql reference for more details.

⚠️ This feature doesn't work for columnstore tables with SingleStoreDB 7.1.

df.write
    .option("onDuplicateKeySQL", "age = age + 1")
    .option("insertBatchSize", 300)
    .mode(SaveMode.Append)
    .save("foo.bar")

As a result of the following query, all new rows will be appended without changes. If a row with the same PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE index already exists then the corresponding age value will be increased.

When you use ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE, all rows of the DataFrame are split into batches, and every insert query will contain no more than the specified insertBatchSize rows setting.

Save Modes

Save operations can optionally take a SaveMode, that specifies how to handle existing data if present. It is important to realize that these save modes do not utilize any locking and are not atomic.

  1. SaveMode.Append means that when saving a DataFrame to a data source, if data/table already exists, contents of the DataFrame are expected to be appended to existing data.
  2. SaveMode.Overwrite means that when saving a DataFrame to a data source, if data/table already exists, existing data is expected to be overwritten by the contents of the DataFrame.

Overwrite mode depends on overwriteBehavior option, for better understanding look at the section "Merging on save"

  1. SaveMode.ErrorIfExists means that when saving a DataFrame to a data source, if data already exists, an exception is expected to be thrown.
  2. SaveMode.Ignore means that when saving a DataFrame to a data source, if data already exists, contents of the DataFrame are expected to be appended to existing data and all rows with duplicate key are ignored.

Example of SaveMode option

df.write
    .mode(SaveMode.Append)
    .save("foo.bar")

Merging on save

When saving dataframes or datasets to SingleStoreDB, you can manage how SaveMode.Overwrite is interpreted by the connector via the option overwriteBehavior. This option can take one of the following values:

  1. dropAndCreate(default) - drop and create the table before writing new values.
  2. truncate - truncate the table before writing new values.
  3. merge - replace rows with new rows by matching on the primary key. (Use this option only if you need to fully rewrite existing rows with new ones. To specify some rule for the update, use the onDuplicateKeySQL option instead.)

All these options are case-insensitive.

Example of merge option

Suppose you have the following table, and the Id column is the primary key.

SELECT * FROM <table>;

Id Name Age
1 Alice 20
2 Bob 25
3 Charlie 30

If you save the following dataframe with overwriteBehavior = merge:

Id Name Age
2 Daniel 22
3 Eve 27
4 Franklin 35
df.write
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("overwriteBehavior", "merge")
    .mode(SaveMode.Overwrite)
    .save("<yourdb>.<table>")

After the save is complete, the table will look like this:

note: rows with Id=2 and Id=3 were overwritten with new rows
note: the row with Id=1 was not touched and still exists in the result

SELECT * FROM <table>;

Id Name Age
1 Alice 20
2 Daniel 22
3 Eve 27
4 Franklin 35

SQL Pushdown

The singlestore-spark-connector has extensive support for rewriting Spark SQL and dataframe operation query plans into standalone SingleStoreDB queries. This allows most of the computation to be pushed into the SingleStoreDB distributed system without any manual intervention. The SQL rewrites are enabled automatically, but they can be disabled using the disablePushdown option. The singlestore-spark-connector also support partial pushdown, where certain parts of a query can be evaluated in SingleStoreDB and certain parts can be evaluated in Spark.

⚠️ SQL Pushdown is either enabled or disabled on the entire Spark Session. If you want to run multiple queries in parallel with different values of disablePushdown, make sure to run them on separate Spark Sessions.

We currently support most of the primary Logical Plan nodes in Spark SQL including:

  • Project
  • Filter
  • Aggregate
  • Window
  • Join
  • Limit
  • Sort

We also support most Spark SQL expressions. A full list of supported operators/functions can be found in the ExpressionGen.scala file.

The best place to look for examples of fully supported queries is in the tests. Check out this file as a starting point: SQLPushdownTest.scala.

Debugging SQL Pushdown

If you encounter an issue with SQL Pushdown the first step is to look at the explain. You can do this easily from any dataframe using the function df.explain(). If you pass the argument true you will get a lot more output that includes pre and post optimization passes.

In addition, the singlestore-spark-connector outputs a lot of helpful information when the TRACE log level is enabled for the com.singlestore.spark package. To enable TRACE log level, add the following line(s) to the log4j configuration:

  • Log4j
log4j.logger.com.singlestore.spark=TRACE
  • Log4j 2
logger.singlestore.name = com.singlestore.spark
logger.singlestore.level = TRACE
logger.singlestore.additivity = false

Make sure not to leave it in place since it generates a huge amount of tracing output.

SQL Pushdown Incompatibilities

  • ToUnixTimestamp and UnixTimestamp only handle time values less than 2038-01-19 03:14:08, if they get DateType or TimestampType as a first argument.
  • FromUnixTime with yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss as the default format, only handles time less than 2147483648 (2^31).
  • DecimalType is truncated on overflow (by default, Spark either throws an exception or returns null).
  • greatest and least return null if at least one argument is null (in Spark these functions skip nulls).
  • When a value can not be converted to numeric or fractional type SingleStoreDB returns 0 (Spark returns null).
  • Atanh(x), for x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) returns, null (Spark returns NaN).
  • When a string is cast to a numeric type, SingleStoreDB takes the prefix of it which is numeric (Spark returns null if the whole string is not numeric).
  • When a numeric type is cast to a smaller one (in size), SingleStoreDB truncates it. For example 500 cast to the Byte will be 127. Note: Spark optimizer can optimize casts for literals and then the behaviour for literals matches custom Spark behaviour.
  • When a fractional type is cast to an integral type, SingleStoreDB rounds it to the closest value.
  • Log returns null instead of NaN, Infinity, -Infinity.
  • Round rounds down if the number to be rounded is followed by 5, and it is DOUBLE or FLOAT (DECIMAL is rounded up).
  • Conv works differently if the number contains non-alphanumeric characters.
  • ShiftLeft, ShiftRight, and ShiftRightUnsigned convert the value to an UNSIGNED BIGINT and then produce the shift. In case of an overflow, it returns 0 (1<<64 = 0 and 10>>20 = 0).
  • BitwiseGet returns 0 when the bit position is negative or exceeds the bit upper limit.
  • Initcap defines a letter as the beginning of a word even if it is enclosed in quotation marks, brackets, etc. For example "dear sir/madam (miss)" is converted to "Dear Sir/Madam (Miss)".
  • Skewness(x), in Spark 3.0, for STD(x) = 0 returns null instead of NaN.

Parallel Read Support

Parallel read can be enabled using enableParallelRead option. This can drastically improve performance in some cases.

The enableParallelRead option can have one of the following values:

  • disabled: Disables parallel reads and performs non-parallel reads.
  • automaticLite: Performs parallel reads if at least one parallel read feature specified in parallelRead.Features is supported. Otherwise performs a non-parallel read. In automaticLite mode, after push down of the outer sorting operation (for example, a nested SELECT statement where sorting is done in a top-level SELECT) into SingleStoreDB is done, a non-parallel read is used.
  • automatic: Performs parallel reads if at least one parallel read feature specified in parallelRead.Features is supported. Otherwise performs a non-parallel read. In automatic mode, the singlestore-spark-connector is unable to push down an outer sorting operation into SingleStore. Final sorting is done at the Spark end of the operation.
  • forced: Performs parallel reads if at least one parallel read feature specified in parallelRead.Features is supported. Otherwise it returns an error. In forced mode, the singlestore-spark-connector is unable to push down an outer sorting operation into SingleStore. Final sorting is done at the Spark end of the operation.

By default, enableParallelRead is set to automaticLite.

Parallel read features

The SingleStoreDB Spark Connector supports the following parallel read features:

  • readFromAggregators
  • readFromAggregatorsMaterialized
  • readFromLeaves

The connector uses the first feature specified in parallelRead.Features which meets all the requirements. The requirements for each feature are specified below. By default, the connector uses the readFromAggregators feature. You can repartition the result set for readFromAggregators and readFromAggregatorsMaterialized features. See Parallel Read Repartitioning for more information.

readFromAggregators

When this feature is used, the singlestore-spark-connector will use SingleStoreDB parallel read functionality. By default, the number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame is the least of the number of partitions in the SingleStoreDB database and Spark parallelism level (i.e., sum of (spark.executor.cores/spark.task.cpus) for all executors). Number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame can be controlled using parallelRead.maxNumPartitions option. To use this feature, all reading tasks must start at the same time. Hence, the number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame should not be greater than the parallelism level of the Spark cluster.

Use the parallelRead.tableCreationTimeoutMS option to specify a timeout for result table creation.

Requirements:

  • SingleStoreDB version 7.5+
  • Either the database option is set, or the database name is specified in the load option
  • SingleStoreDB parallel read functionality supports the generated query

readFromAggregatorsMaterialized

This feature is very similar to readFromAggregators. The only difference is that readFromAggregatorsMaterialized uses the MATERIALIZED option to create the result table. When this feature is used, the reading tasks do not have to start at the same time. Hence, the parallelism level on the Spark cluster does not affect the reading tasks. Although, using the MATERIALIZED option may cause a query to fail if SingleStoreDB does not have enough memory to materialize the result set. By default, the number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame is equal to the number of partitions in the SingleStoreDB database. Number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame can be controlled using parallelRead.maxNumPartitions option.

Use the parallelRead.materializedTableCreationTimeoutMS option to specify a timeout for materialized result table creation.

Requirements:

  • SingleStoreDB version 7.5+
  • Either the database option is set, or the database name is specified in the load option
  • SingleStoreDB parallel read functionality supports the generated query

readFromLeaves

When this feature is used, the singlestore-spark-connector skips the transaction layer and reads directly from partitions on the leaf nodes. Hence, each individual read task sees an independent version of the database's distributed state. If some queries (other than read operation) are run on the database, they may affect the current read operation. Make sure to take this into account when using readFromLeaves feature.

This feature supports only those query-shapes that do not perform any operation on the aggregator and can be pushed down to the leaf nodes.

In order to use readFromLeaves feature, the username and password provided to the singlestore-spark-connector must be the same across all nodes in the cluster.

By default, the number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame is equal to the number of partitions in the SingleStoreDB database. Number of partitions in the resulting DataFrame can be controlled using parallelRead.maxNumPartitions option.

Requirements:

  • Either the database option is set, or the database name is specified in the load option
  • The username and password provided to the singlestore-spark-connector must be uniform across all the nodes in the cluster, because parallel reads require consistent authentication and connectible leaf nodes
  • The hostnames and ports listed by SHOW LEAVES must be directly connectible from Spark
  • The generated query can be pushed down to the leaf nodes

Parallel read repartitioning

You can repartition the result using parallelRead.repartition option for the readFromAggregators and readFromAggregatorsMaterialized features to ensure that each task reads approximately the same amount of data. This option is very useful for queries with top level limit clauses as without repartitioning it is possible that all rows will belong to one partition.

Use the parallelRead.repartition.columns option to specify a comma separated list of columns that will be used for repartitioning. Column names that contain leading or trailing whitespaces or commas must be escaped as:

  • Column name must be enclosed in backticks
"a" -> "`a`"
  • Each backtick (`) in the column name must be replaced with two backticks (``)
"a`a``" -> "a``a````"

By default, repartitioning is done using an additional column with RAND() value.

Example

spark.read.format("singlestore")
.option("enableParallelRead", "automatic")
.option("parallelRead.Features", "readFromAggregators,readFromLeaves")
.option("parallelRead.repartition", "true")
.option("parallelRead.repartition.columns", "a, b")
.option("parallelRead.TableCreationTimeout", "1000")
.load("db.table")

In the following example, connector will check requirements for readFromAggregators. If they are satisfied, it will use this feature. Otherwise, it will check requirements for readFromLeaves. If they are satisfied, connector will use this feature. Otherwise, it will use non-parallel read. If the connector uses readFromAggregators, it will repartition the result on the SingleStoreDB side before reading it, and it will fail if creation of the result table will take longer than 1000 milliseconds.

Running SQL queries

The methods executeSinglestoreQuery(query: String, variables: Any*) and executeSinglestoreQueryDB(db: String, query: String, variables: Any*) allow you to run SQL queries on a SingleStoreDB database directly using the existing SparkSession object. The method executeSinglestoreQuery uses the database defined in the SparkContext object you use. executeSinglestoreQueryDB allows you to specify the database that will be used for querying. The following examples demonstrate their usage (assuming you already have initialized SparkSession object named spark). The methods return Iterator[org.apache.spark.sql.Row] object.

// this imports the implicit class QueryMethods which adds the methods
// executeSinglestoreQuery and executeSinglestoreQueryDB to SparkSession class
import com.singlestore.spark.SQLHelper.QueryMethods

// You can pass an empty database to executeSinglestoreQueryDB to connect to SingleStoreDB without specifying a database.
// This allows you to create a database which is defined in the SparkSession config for example.
spark.executeSinglestoreQueryDB("", "CREATE DATABASE foo")
// the next query can be used if the database field has been specified in spark object
s = spark.executeSinglestoreQuery("CREATE TABLE user(id INT, name VARCHAR(30), status BOOLEAN)")

// you can create another database
spark.executeSinglestoreQuery("CREATE DATABASE bar")
// the database specified as the first argument will override the database set in the SparkSession object
s = spark.executeSinglestoreQueryDB("bar", "CREATE TABLE user(id INT, name VARCHAR(30), status BOOLEAN)")

You can pass query parameters to the functions as arguments following query. The supported types for parameters are String, Int, Long, Short, Float, Double, Boolean, Byte, java.sql.Date, java.sql.Timestamp.

import com.singlestore.spark.SQLHelper.QueryMethods

var userRows = spark.executeSinglestoreQuery("SELECT id, name FROM USER WHERE id > ? AND status = ? AND name LIKE ?", 10, true, "%at%")

for (row <- userRows) {
  println(row.getInt(0), row.getString(1))
}

Alternatively, these functions can take SparkSession object as the first argument, as in the example below

import com.singlestore.spark.SQLHelper.{executeSinglestoreQuery, executeSinglestoreQueryDB}

executeSinglestoreQuery(spark, "CREATE DATABASE foo")
var s = executeSinglestoreQueryDB(spark, "foo", "SHOW TABLES")

Security

SQL Permissions

The permission matrix describes the permissions required to run each command.

To perform any SQL operation through the SingleStore Spark Connector, you must have the permissions required for that specific operation. The following matrix describes the minimum permissions required to perform some operations.

Note: The ALL PRIVILEGES permission allows you to perform any operation.

Operation Min. Permission Alternative Permission
READ from collection SELECT ALL PRIVILEGES
WRITE to collection SELECT, INSERT ALL PRIVILEGES
DROP database or collection SELECT, INSERT, DROP ALL PRIVILEGES
CREATE database or collection SELECT, INSERT, CREATE ALL PRIVILEGES

For more information on granting privileges, see GRANT

Connecting with a Kerberos-authenticated User

You can use the SingleStoreDB Spark Connector with a Kerberized user without any additional configuration. To use a Kerberized user, you need to configure the connector with the given SingleStoreDB database user that is authenticated with Kerberos (via the user option). Please visit our documentation here to learn about how to configure SingleStoreDB users with Kerberos.

Here is an example of configuring the Spark connector globally with a Kerberized SingleStoreDB user called krb_user.

spark = SparkSession.builder()
    .config("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "krb_user")
    .getOrCreate()

You do not need to provide a password when configuring a Spark Connector user that is Kerberized. The connector driver (SingleStoreDB JDBC driver) will be able to authenticate the Kerberos user from the cache by the provided username. Other than omitting a password with this configuration, using a Kerberized user with the Connector is no different than using a standard user. Note that if you do provide a password, it will be ignored.

SSL Support

The SingleStoreDB Spark Connector uses the SingleStoreDB JDBC Driver under the hood and thus supports SSL configuration out of the box. In order to configure SSL, first ensure that your SingleStoreDB cluster has SSL configured. Documentation on how to set this up can be found here: https://docs.singlestore.com/latest/guides/security/encryption/ssl/

Once you have setup SSL on your server, you can enable SSL via setting the following options:

spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.useSSL", "true")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.serverSslCert", "PATH/TO/CERT")

Note: the serverSslCert option may be server's certificate in DER form, or the server's CA certificate. Can be used in one of 3 forms:

  • serverSslCert=/path/to/cert.pem (full path to certificate)
  • serverSslCert=classpath:relative/cert.pem (relative to current classpath)
  • or as verbatim DER-encoded certificate string ------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----...

You may also want to set these additional options depending on your SSL configuration:

spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.trustServerCertificate", "true")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.disableSslHostnameVerification", "true")

See The SingleStoreDB JDBC Driver for more information.

JWT authentication

You may authenticate your connection to the SingleStoreDB cluster using the SingleStoreDB Spark connector with a JWT. To use JWT-based authentication, specify the following parameters:

  • credentialType=JWT
  • password=<jwt-token>

Here's a sample configuration that uses JWT-based authentication:

SparkConf conf = new SparkConf();
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.dmlEndpoints", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal,singlestore-child-1.cluster.internal:3307")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.credentialType", "JWT")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.useSsl", "true")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "s2user")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.password", "eyJhbGci.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3.masHf")

note: To authenticate your connection to the SingleStoreDB cluster using the SingleStoreDB Spark connector with a JWT, the SingleStoreDB user must connect via SSL and use a JWT for authentication.

See Create a JWT User for more information.

See Authenticate via JWT for more information.

Filing issues

When filing issues please include as much information as possible as well as any reproduction steps. It's hard for us to reproduce issues if the problem depends on specific data in your SingleStoreDB table for example. Whenever possible please try to construct a minimal reproduction of the problem and include the table definition and table contents in the issue.

If the issue is related to SQL Pushdown (or you aren't sure) make sure to include the TRACE output (from the com.singlestore.spark package) or the full explain of the plan. See the debugging SQL Pushdown section above for more information on how to do this.

Happy querying!

Setting up development environment

  • install Oracle JDK 8 from this url: https://www.oracle.com/java/technologies/javase/javase-jdk8-downloads.html
  • install the community edition of Intellij IDEA from https://www.jetbrains.com/idea/
  • clone the repository https://github.com/memsql/singlestore-spark-connector.git
  • in Intellij IDEA choose Configure->Plugins and install Scala plugin
  • in Intellij IDEA run Import Project and select path to singlestore-spark-connector build.sbt file
  • choose import project from external model and sbt
  • in Project JDK select New...->JDK and choose the path to the installed JDK
  • Finish
  • it will overwrite some files and create build files (which are in .gitignore)
  • you may need to remove the .idea directory for IDEA to load the project properly
  • in Intellij IDEA choose File->Close Project
  • run git checkout . to revert all changes made by Intellij IDEA
  • in Intellij IDEA choose Open and select path to singlestore-spark-connector
  • run Test Spark 3.0 (it should succeed)

Java & Python Examples

Java

Configuration

SparkConf conf = new SparkConf();
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.dmlEndpoints", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal,singlestore-child-1.cluster.internal:3307")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "admin")
conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.password", "s3cur3-pa$$word")

Read Data

DataFrame df = spark
  .read()
  .format("singlestore")
  .option("ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
  .option("user", "admin")
  .load("foo");

Write Data

df.write()
    .format("singlestore")
    .option("loadDataCompression", "LZ4")
    .option("overwriteBehavior", "dropAndCreate")
    .mode(SaveMode.Overwrite)
    .save("foo.bar")

Python

Configuration

spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.dmlEndpoints", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal,singlestore-child-1.cluster.internal:3307")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.user", "admin")
spark.conf.set("spark.datasource.singlestore.password", "s3cur3-pa$$word")

Read Data

df = spark \
  .read \
  .format("singlestore") \
  .option("ddlEndpoint", "singlestore-master.cluster.internal") \
  .option("user", "admin") \
  .load("foo")

Write Data

df.write \
    .format("singlestore") \
    .option("loadDataCompression", "LZ4") \
    .option("overwriteBehavior", "dropAndCreate") \
    .mode("overwrite") \
    .save("foo.bar")