BigInteger for scala with very fast modPow

BigInteger for scala

This is highly optimized implementation of BigInteger on scala for scala, scala-js and scala-native.

You can use it as

libraryDependencies += "pt.kcry" %%% "biginteger" % "x.x.x"

The latest version is maven-central

As the base it is used scala-js implementation that was ported from java by Alistair Johnson that is technically GWT/Harmony/IBM JDK implementation.

All this optimization mainly focused to less sweepings and highest performance on mod, modPow and isProbablePrime. As side effect I've optimized divide, remainder, nextProbablePrime and something near.

Summary of optimizations:

  • replaced for loop to while
  • introduced Burnikel-Ziegler division
  • switched to sieve of Eratosthenes at construction of BigInteger
  • introduced Lucas-Lehmer probable prime test with following ANSI X9.80 specification
  • introduced a merged montgomery multiplication and reduction

The key idea of montgomery function is splitting it to modSquare and modProp where each of them is merged version of multiplication and reduction that used constant sweepings.

This fork also fixed bugs:

  • prevented incorrect hashcode in highly concurrent environment
  • reset hashcode after uncache()
  • nextProbablePrime returns not the next prime number, just a prime number that is bigger than specified

For compare performance I've included to benchmarks BigInteger implementation from OpenJDK 14, but I haven't used any part of inside the code.


  • java means OpenJDK java implementation
  • java_native the same OpenJDK java implementation that used all JVM optimization
  • scalajs the base version that is used in ScalaJS and Scala-Native
  • korinsky this code

All benchmarks was performed on JDK 14.0.1, Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, 14.0.1+7 at Intel® Core™ i7-8700B.

Short summary:

  • JVM native implementation faster at all benchmarks
  • divRem faster for about 5% than JVM version and 10% than ScalaJS version,
  • modPow faster for about 15% than JVM or ScalaJS implementation, and reduce sweepings for about 50% when compare with JVM implementation, and 50 time when compare with ScalaJS implementation,
  • nextProbablePrime and isProbablePrime 30 time faster for integers for 1024 bit length.

Full version also available as jmh-result.json or via JMH Visualizer.