Scala Linear Algebra & Statistics Hacks
 Cross compile to JVM, Native, and JavaScript platforms
 Maximize performance
 Minimize memory footprint
 Provide convenient syntax
 Seamlessly interoperate with other math libraries
 Seamlessly interoperate with native languages like JavaScript, C/C++, and Java
 Serialize efficiently and compactly by default
libraryDependencies += "ai.dragonfly" %%% "slash" % "<LATEST_VERSION>"
 High performance Vector data types with convenient vector math syntax.
 Probability Distributions, Parametric and Estimated (Online/Streaming): Gaussian/Normal, Poisson, LogNormal, Binomial (parametric only), Beta, and PERT; each with support for sampling and probability density functions, PDFs.
 Sampleable trait for making types into generative models.
 Math functions: Beta, Factorial, and Gamma functions: B(α, β), x! and Γ(x). Convenience macros, methods, and case classes for computing logarithms of arbitrary base.
 Geometry: Sample points uniformly from volumes defined by 3D tetrahedrons.
 Bresenham Line Drawing Algorithm that invokes a lambda for each discrete point on a line.
 Kernels: Gaussian, Epanechnikov, Uniform, and Discrete.
 Flexible Histogram data structures with Console friendly Text Based Visualizations inspired by Julia Plots.
 Bijection[A, B]: an abstraction for bijective implicit conversions.
 BigRandom: scala.util.Random extension methods to generate random BigInt and BigDecimal values.
 Interval and Domain types and objects with support for random sampling.
 Unicode text formatting utility for writing numeric value types in superscript or subscript positions.
 Matrix math:
 multiplication for Matrix * Matrix, Matrix * Vector, and Scalar * Matrix
 element wise operations: add, subtract, multiply, and divide
 submatrix, column, row, and element operations: get, set
 determinant
 transpose
 inverse
 norm operations: one, two, infinity, and Frobenius
 decompositions: Cholesky, Eigen, LU, QR, and Singular Value
 In memory data sets: unsupervised and supervised
 Linear Regression based on both QR Decomposition and Singular Value Decomposition.
 Principal Components Analysis
Instead of case classes, traits, or wrappers, this library represents all runtime vector data as native arrays of double precision floating point values. However, it also uses Scala 3 features like opaque types, dependent types, and extension methods to decorate the array primitives with convenient syntax, e.g. overloaded operators like +  * / += = *= /=
, and also, by expressing vector dimensionality as a type parameter, can prevent runtime errors resulting from trying to perform vector operations on vectors of mismatched dimensions at compile time. For example:
opaque type Vec[N <: Int] = NArray[Double]
val v2:Vec[2] = Vec[2](1.0, 2.0)
val v3:Vec[3] = Vec[3](1.0, 2.0, 3.0)
println((v2 + v3).show) // compiler error!
// Even though, at runtime, v2 and v3 have the same type,
// the compiler treats them as though they have different, distinct types.
// This eliminates runtime exceptions related to mismatched vector dimensions.
Why NArray[Double]
and not Array[Double]
? Because Vec relies on NArr, JavaScript environments store vector data as: Float64Array
while JVM and Native environments rely on: Array[Double]
. This ensures that whichever compilation target you choose, Vector will always reduce to the native array type with the highest available performance.
For a more detailed explanation of the design decisions that have shaped this library, see the design notes.
import slash.vector.*
// create a 3 dimensional vector
val v1:Vec[3] = Vec[3](1.0, 0.5, 0.0)
// print it to the console with expressive unicode text
println(v1.show) // > 《³↗〉1.0ᵢ 0.0ⱼ 0.0ₖ〉
// perform various vector math operations
val v2:Vec[3] = Vec[3](0.75, 1.0, 0.5)
val v3:Vec[3] = v1 + v2
println( v3.norm )
v3 = v1
println( v3.euclideanDistanceTo(v2) )
// perform Vector3 specific operations
import slash.vector.Vector3.*
println(v1.x) // .x .y and .z provided by an extension method in Vector3
// compute 3D Vector Cross product
println( (v1 cross v2 ).show )
println( (v1 ⨯ v2 ).show ) // or with a unicode ⨯ operator
import slash.Random.*
val r:Random = defaultRandom
// higher dimensional vectors
val v42a:Vec[42] = r.nextVec[42]()
val v42b:Vec[42] = r.nextVec[42]()
println( v42a dot v42b )
println( (v42a  v42b).render() ) // fully customisable render method.
println( (v42a + v42b).csv() ) // output vector sum as comma separated values
println( (v42a + v42b).tsv() ) // output vector sum tab separated values
// create an 3 x 2 matrix of zeros.
val m:Matrix[3, 2] = Matrix.zeros[3, 2]
By encoding the matrix's row and column dimensions into its type, the compiler can prevent a whole category of runtime errors that arise from mismatched matrix dimensions:
// create an 3 x 2 matrix of zeros.
val m0:Matrix[3, 2] = Matrix.zeros[3, 2]
val m1:Matrix[2, 3] = Matrix.zeros[2, 3]
val m2:Matrix[3, 3] = m0 * m1
val m = m2 * m1 // compiler error!
Relatedly, many matrix operations like determinant
, Cholesky decomposition, etc, only pertain to square matrices. This library relies on type conditioned extension methods so that users simply cannot attempt to invoke these operations on rectangular matrices. More specifically:
extension [MN <: Int] (m: Matrix[MN, MN])(using ValueOf[MN]) {
def determinant: Double = LU[MN, MN](m).determinant
}
Instead of including a determinant
method directly in the Matrix
class, this extension method makes a determinant
method available only for square matrices. Trying to invoke the determinant
method on a rectangular matrix, for which M != N, will yield a compiler error.
Because matrix relies on NArr, JavaScript environments store matrix data as:
var matrixArray:NArray[Double]
which is equivalent to:
var matrixArray:Float64Array
In JVM and Native environments, matrix data occupies normal scala Array[Double]
.
import slash.stats.probability.distributions.*
// create a gaussian distribution parametrically
val g:Gaussian = Gaussian(10.0, 42.0)
g.p(7.0) // evaluate the Probability Density Function at 7.0, in other words: PDF(7.0)
g.random() // randomly sample a value from this gaussian model
import slash.stats.probability.distributions.*
// create a gaussian distribution parametrically
val eg:stream.Gaussian = stream.Gaussian()
// observe some trials
eg.observe(7.0)
eg.observe(7.5)
eg.observe(9.1)
eg.observe(6.3)
eg.observe(8.4)
// estimate a parametric Gaussian distribution from the observations
val pg:Gaussian = eg.estimate
pg.p(8.0) // estimate the Probability Density Function at 8.0, in other words: PDF'(8.0)
pg.random() // randomly sample a value from the estimated gaussian model
To compute logₓ(y)
, where x
is any value of type: Double
, we compute: log₁₀(y) / log₁₀(x)
. Which can introduce a lot of computational overhead, especially when done in loops which repeatedly compute the same value for log₁₀(x)
. To improve performance and legibility, this library provides a log[BASE <: Double  Int]
macro that computes the log₁₀(x)
denominator at compile time; it also clarifies the operation by allowing users to write the base of the log into the type parameter and the operand as a method parameter. As such, instead of: log(2 /*base*/, 42 /*operand*/)
we can write: log[2](42)
.
import slash.*
// Compile time optimized Logarithms of known base:
log[2](42.0) // Computes log₂(42) at compile time
log[0.5](11.0) // Computes log₀.₅(11) at compile time
var i: Int = 1; while (i > 0) {
println( log[2](i) ) // computes half of this operation at compile time
i = i << 1
}
import slash.*
// Use the runtime LogTest class for:
// a base determined by a value:
import slash.Constant.π
val logBasePi: LogTest = LogTest(π)
logBasePi(13)
// or any base unknown at compile time,
val logBaseRandom:LogTest = LogTest(Math.random())
logBaseRandom(42)
Unicode Histogram Plot:
Histogram: {
[17.00,11.00 ) 🌑 ︙ ∝ 3.0E4
[11.00, 5.00 ) 🌑 ▕█ ∝ 0.0094
[ 5.00, 1.00 ) 🌑 ▕████████ ∝ 0.0732
[ 1.00, 7.00 ) 🌒 ▕███████████████████████████ ∝ 0.2447
[ 7.00, 13.00 ) 🌓 ▕███████████████████████████████████████ ∝ 0.3516
[ 13.00, 19.00 ) 🌔 ▕██████████████████████████▋ ∝ 0.2411`
[ 19.00, 25.00 ) 🌔 ▕███████▌ ∝ 0.069
[ 25.00, 31.00 ) 🌔 ▕█ ∝ 0.0101
[ 31.00, 37.00 ) 🌔 ︙ ∝ 5.0E4
[ 37.00, 43.00 ] 🌕 ︰ ∝ 1.0E4
}
These plots label the bins with standardised math notation for open and closed intervals, but also use the unicode glyphs for the phases of the moon to represent the cumulative distribution.
libraryDependencies += "ai.dragonfly" %%% "vector" % "<LATEST_VERSION>"

NArray[Double]
is useful, but why excludeNArray[Float]
?In Scala.js, the runtime type of
Float
doesn't fully exist, while Scala.js, Scala JVM, and Scala Native all share the same implementation ofDouble
.  What if a vector's dimension depends on a variable? Can this library support vectors with dimensionality defined at runtime?
Yes, but with some limitations. Please consider the following examples:
// Vectors with lengths defined at runtime. // method 1: val l0:Int = r.nextInt (100) type N0 = l0.type val rtv0: Vec[N0] = r.nextVec[N0]() println(rtv0.render()) // method 2: val l1: Int = r.nextInt(100) val rtv1: Vec[l1.type] = r.nextVec[l1.type]() println(rtv1.render()) // For better or worse, this throws a compiler error even though l1 == l2 is true: val l1: Int = r.nextInt(100) val l2: Int = 0 + l1 val rtv1: Vec[l1.type] = r.nextVec[l1.type]() val rtv2: Vec[l2.type] = r.nextVec[l2.type]() println((rtv1 + rtv2).render()) // [error] 57  println((rtv1 + rtv2).render()) // [error]  ^^^^ // [error]  Found: (rtv2 : slash.vector.Vec[(l2 : Int)]) // [error]  Required: slash.vector.Vec[(l1 : Int)] // However, you can do this: val l1: Int = r.nextInt(100) val l2: Int = 0 + l1 val rtv1: Vec[l1.type] = r.nextVec[l1.type]() val rtv2: Vec[l2.type] = r.nextVec[l2.type]() println((rtv1 + rtv2.asInstanceOf[Vec[l1.type]]).render())
We recommend writing a representation of a vector space that contains a reference to a dimension type, then sharing that type across all of the vectors in that space. Unfortunately, this means having to think about a concept that no other math library has had, but it can also head off all kinds of run time errors caused by mismatched dimension exceptions.
Projects that rely on this Library:
https://github.com/dragonflyai/bitfrost
https://github.com/dragonflyai/spatial
https://github.com/dragonflyai/mesh
https://github.com/dragonflyai/img
Acknowledgements:
This library has evolved over years, but owes a lot of its virtues to feedback from the Scala Discord community. In no particular order:
https://github.com/ekrich  Performance tips and encouragement.
https://github.com/armanbilge  Continuous Integration tools and support.
https://github.com/s5bug  Design insights.
https://github.com/BalmungSan  Design insights.
https://github.com/Quafadas  Contributor!
https://github.com/JD557  Design insights and named this library. Contributor!
https://github.com/Jmie6  Git advice.
Thanks, scala fam!