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artie {from rrt := rest-refactoring-test-framework}

You want to change a (legacy) REST service which has no tests and it is impossible to write some tests without rebuilding the whole thing? If so this tool may help you. It is a small framework to generate REST request from different data sets, run them against two instances of your service (old and new) and compare the responses.

The only thing you have to do is:

import artie._
import artie.implicits._

// write a refactoring spec
object MyServiceRefactoring extends RefactoringSpec("my-service") {

  // give some informations
  val conf = Config("old-host", 8080, "new-host", 8080)
  val db   = mysql("db-host", "user", "pwd")

  // add some data
  val providers = Providers ~
    // random ages between 10 and 100
    ('ages, provide[Int].random(10, 100) ~

    // some user ids from a db
    ('userIds, provide[Long].database.random("users_table", "user_id", limit = 100, db)

  // you have to provide `read` (see below)
  check("get-user", providers, conf, read[User]) { implicit r => p =>
    val userId = select('userIds, p).next
    val ageO   = select('ages, p).nextOpt

    // request builder
    get(s"/user/$userId", Params <&> ("age", ageO))
  }
}

And run it:

# if both instances behave the same
sbt "runMain MyServiceRefactoring"

testing refactorings for my-service:
  + check get-user
    processed: 1 / 1

Success: Total: 1; Succeeded: 1, Invalid: 0; Failed: 0

# in presence of differences
sbt "it:runMain MyServiceRefactoring"

testing refactorings for my-service:
  + check get-user
    processed: 1 / 1
    
    Get /user/0?age=20
    {
      city: "Hamburg" != "New York"
    }

Failed: Total: 1; Succeeded: 0, Invalid: 0; Failed: 1

Here Invalid indicates response pairs with the same error code (3.x.x, 4.x.x or 5.x.x). Invalide results don't fail a test.

For some examples take a look here.

Table of Contents

Get This Framework

You can add it as dependency for Scala 2.11 and 2.12:

// take a look at the maven batch to find the latest version
libraryDependencies += "com.github.pheymann" %% "artie" % <version>

or build it locally:

git clone https://github.com/pheymann/artie.git
cd artie
sbt "publishLocal"

Dependencies

I tried to keep the dependencies to external libraries as small as possible. Currently this framework uses:

Documentation

In the following I'll describe the basic elements of a refactoring spec: test configuration (TestConfig), data providers (Provider) and multiple test cases (check), in more detail.

Table of Contents

TestConfig

Configuration for test execution and rest calls:

Config("base-host", 80, "ref-host", 80)
  .repetitions(100)
  .parallelism(3)
  .stopOnFailure(false)
  .shownDiffsLimit(10)

Mandatory:

  • baseHost: host address of the old/original service
  • basePort: port of the old/original service
  • refactoredHost: host address of the new/refactored service
  • refactoredPort: port of the new/refactored service

Additional settings:

  • repetitions: [default = 1] how many requests will be created (repeat this check)
  • parallelism: [default = 1] how many requests can be ran in parallel
  • stopOnFailure: [default = true] if set to false the test will continue in the presence of a difference
  • shownDiffsLimit: [default = 1] how many diffs are shown

Providers

Providers provide a collection of elements of some type A for later usage with data selectors. They have to be tagged (with Symbols) when passed to a test case:

val providers = Providers ~ ('tag0, prov0) ~ ('tag1, prov1)

Static

Provides data from a static sequence:

provide[User].static(User("foo"), User("bar"))

Random

Provides data from a random generator in a range of min / max:

provide[Long].random(0, 100)

Database

Provides data from a Database query:

// provide a query (add a LIMIT as all data is eagerly loaded)!
provide[Long].database("select id from users limit 100", db)

// or randomly select 100 elements
provide[Long].database.random("users", "id", 100, db)
Database

Currently artie provides you with mysql, postgres and h2 which can be used like this:

val db0 = mysql(<host>, <user>, <password>)
val db1 = postgres(<host>, <user>, <password>)
val db2 = h2(<host>, <user>, <password>)

Read REST responses

You need to tell artie how to read the json response sent by your service. To do so you have to create an instance of Read for that type:

// manually for every type
val userRead = new Read[User] {
  def apply(json: String): Either[String, User] = ???
}

// or by reusing your mappings from some json-frameworks
object PlayJsonToRead {

  def read[U](implicit reads: play.api.libs.json.Reads[U]): Read[U] = new Read[U] {
    def apply(json: String): Either[String, U] = 
      Json.fromJson[U](Json.parse(json)) match {
        case JsSuccess(u, _) => Right(u)
        case JsError(errors) => Left(errors.mkString("\n"))
      }
  }
}

Now we can build a test case by calling check:

// r := Random instance
// p := list of all our tagged providers
check("my endpoint", providers, config, read[User]) { implicit r => p =>
  ???
}

But wait, how do we get data out of our provider instance p to build requests?

Data Selector

You can select data from some provider 'tag as shown below:

implicit r => p => 
  select('tag, p).next // single element
  select('tag, p).nextOpt // single element which can be `Some` or `None`
  select('tag, p).nextSeq(10) // sequence of elements of length 10
  select('tag, p).nextSet(10) // set of elements of maximum size 10

If you try to access a provider which isn't part of p the compiler will tell you.

Request Builder

You can create:

  • get
  • put
  • post
  • delete

requests by calling:

get("http://my.service/test")

post("http://my.service/test", contentO = Some("""{"id":0}"""))

Query Parameter and Headers

If you need query parameters or headers use:

val p = Params <&> ("a", 1) <&> ("b", Some(0)) <&> ("c", Seq(1, 2, 3))
val h = Headers <&> ("Content-Type", "application/json")

get("http://my.service/test", params = p, headers = h)

Test Suite

You don't want to execute all your specs by hand? Then add a RefactoringSuite:

object MySuite extends RefactoringSuite {
  
  val specs = FirstSpec :: SecondSpec :: Nil
}

This will execute all your RefactoringSpecs you add to specs in sequence.

Ignore Response Fields

Sometimes it is necessary to ignore some response fields (eg. timestamp). If you don't want to rewrite your json mapping you can provide a IgnoreFields instance:

final case class Log(msg: String, time: Long)

implicit val logIgnore = IgnoreFields[Log].ignore('time)
   
check("log-endpoint", providers, conf, read[Log]) { ...}

The Symbol has to be equal to the field name. If you write something which doesn't exists in your case class the compiler will tell you.

Override ExecutionContext

artie uses ExecutionContext.global by default, but if you need a specific context you can override it with:

object MyRefactoring extends RefactoringSpec {
  override implicit val executionContext = myContext
  
  ...
}

Response Comparison

Response comparison is done by creating a list of field-value pairs (LabelledGenerics) from your responses of class R and comparing each field:

(old: R, refact: R) => (old: FieldValues, refact: FieldValues) => Seq[Diff]

The result is a sequence of Diff with each diff providing the field name and:

  • the two original values,
  • a set of diffs of the two values.

Currently the framework is able to provide detailed comparison results (fields with values) for:

  • simple case classes (case class User(id: Long, name: String)
  • nested case classes (case class Friendship(base: User, friend: User))
  • sequences, sets and arrays within case classes (case class Group(members: Set[User]))
  • maps within case classes (case class UserTopic(topics: Map[Topic, User]))
  • sequences and arrays of case classes (Array[User])
  • maps of case classses (Map[Int, Group])

Everythings else will be compare by != and completely reported on failure.

If you need something else take a look here to get an idea how to implement it.

Add your Database

You can add your Database as easy as this:

trait Mysql extends Database {

  val driver = "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"

  def qualifiedHost = "jdbc:mysql://" + host

  def randomQuery(table: String, column: String, limit: Int): String =
    s"""SELECT DISTINCT t.$column
       |FROM $table AS t
       |ORDER BY RAND()
       |LIMIT $limit
       |""".stripMargin  
}

object Mysql {

  def apply(_host: String, _user: String, _password: String) = new Mysql {
    val host = _host
    val user = _user
    val password = _password
  }
}