This is an sbt plugin to help automate releases to Sonatype and Maven Central from Travis CI
- git tag pushes are published as regular releases to Maven Central
- merge into master commits are published as -SNAPSHOT with a unique version number for every commit
Beware that publishing from Travis CI requires you to expose Sonatype credentials as secret environment variables in Travis CI jobs. However, secret environment variables are not accessible during pull requests.
Let's get started!
First, follow the instructions in https://central.sonatype.org/pages/ossrh-guide.html to create a Sonatype account and make sure you have publishing rights for a domain name. This is a one-time setup per domain name.
If you don't have a domain name, you can use
com.github.<@your_username>. Here is a template you can use to write the Sonatype issue:
Title: Publish rights for com.github.olafurpg Description: Hi, I would like to publish under the groupId: com.github.olafurpg. It's my GitHub account https://github.com/olafurpg/
Optional: create user tokens
If you prefer not to save your actual username and password in the Travis CI settings below, generate your user tokens:
- login to https://oss.sonatype.org,
- click your username in the top right, then profiles,
- in the tab that was opened, click on the top left dropdown, and select "User Token",
- click "Access User Token", and save the name and password parts of the token somewhere safe.
Next, install this plugin in
// sbt 1 only, see FAQ for 0.13 support addSbtPlugin("com.geirsson" % "sbt-ci-release" % "1.2.2")
sbt-ci-release the following sbt plugins are also brought in:
- sbt-dynver: sets the version number based on your git history
- sbt-pgp: to cryptographically sign the artifacts before publishing
- sbt-sonatype: to publish artifacts to Sonatype
- sbt-git: to automatically populate
build.sbt does not define any of the following settings
version: handled by sbt-dynver
publishTo: handled by sbt-ci-release
publishMavenStyle: handled by sbt-ci-release
credentials: handled by sbt-sonatype
Next, define publishing settings at the top of
inThisBuild(List( organization := "com.geirsson", homepage := Some(url("https://github.com/scalameta/sbt-scalafmt")), licenses := List("Apache-2.0" -> url("http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0")), developers := List( Developer( "olafurpg", "Ólafur Páll Geirsson", "email@example.com", url("https://geirsson.com") ) ) ))
Next, create a fresh gpg key that you will share with Travis CI and only use for this project.
- For real name, use "$PROJECT_NAME bot". For example, in Scalafmt I use "Scalafmt bot"
- For email, use your own email address
- For passphrase, generate a random password with a password manager
At the end you'll see output like this
pub rsa2048 2018-06-10 [SC] [expires: 2020-06-09] $LONG_ID uid $PROJECT_NAME bot <$EMAIL>
Take note of
$LONG_ID, make sure to replace this ID from the code examples below. The ID will look something like
Next, copy the public gpg signature
# macOS gpg --armor --export $LONG_ID | pbcopy # linux gpg --armor --export $LONG_ID | xclip
and post the signature to a keyserver: http://keyserver.ubuntu.com:11371/
Next, open the "Settings" panel for your project on Travis CI, for example https://travis-ci.org/scalameta/sbt-scalafmt/settings.
Define four secret variables
PGP_PASSPHRASE: The randomly generated password you used to create a fresh gpg key.
PGP_SECRET: The base64 encoded secret of your private key that you can export from the command line like here below
# macOS gpg --armor --export-secret-keys $LONG_ID | base64 | pbcopy # Ubuntu (assuming GNU base64) gpg --armor --export-secret-keys $LONG_ID | base64 -w0 | xclip # FreeBSD (assuming BSD base64) gpg --armor --export-secret-keys $LONG_ID | base64 | xclip
SONATYPE_PASSWORD: The password you use to log into https://oss.sonatype.org/. Alternatively, the password part of the user token if you generated one above. If the password contains bash special characters, make sure to escape it by wrapping it in single quotes
'my?pa$$word', see Travis Environment Variables.
SONATYPE_USERNAME: The username you use to log into https://oss.sonatype.org/. Alternatively, the name part of the user token if you generated one above.
CI_RELEASE: the command to publish all artifacts for stable releases. Defaults to
+publishSignedif not provided.
CI_SNAPSHOT_RELEASE: the command to publish all artifacts for a SNAPSHOT releases. Defaults to
+publishif not provided.
CI_SONATYPE_RELEASE: the command called to close and promote the staged repository. Useful when, for example, also dealing with non-sbt projects to change to
sonatypeReleaseAll. Defaults to
sonatypeReleaseif not provided.
.travis.yml to trigger
ci-release on successful merge into master and on tag push. There are many ways to do this, but I recommend using Travis "build stages". It's not necessary to use build stages but they make it easy to avoid publishing the same module multiple times from parallel jobs.
- First, ensure that git tags are always fetched so that sbt-dynver can pick up the correct
before_install: - git fetch --tags
- Next, define
stages: - name: test - name: release if: (branch = master AND type = push) OR (tag IS present)
- Lastly, define your build matrix with
ci-releaseat the bottom, for example:
jobs: include: # stage="test" if no stage is specified - env: TEST="compile" script: sbt compile - env: TEST="formatting" script: ./bin/scalafmt --test # run ci-release only if previous stages passed - stage: release script: sbt ci-release
- for a complete example of the Travis configuration, see the .travis.yml in this repository
- if we use
after_successinstead of build stages, we would run
TEST="compile". As long as you make sure you don't publish the same module multiple times, you can use any Travis configuration you like
env: TEST="compile"part is optional but it makes it easy to distinguish different jobs in the Travis UI
We're all set! Time to manually try out the new setup
- Open a PR and merge it to watch the CI release a -SNAPSHOT version
- Push a tag and watch the CI do a regular release
git tag -a v0.1.0 -m "v0.1.0" git push origin v0.1.0
Note that the tag version MUST start with
It's is normal that something fails on the first attempt to publish from CI. Even if it takes 10 attempts to get it right, it's still worth it because it's so nice to have automatic CI releases. If all is correctly setup, your Travis jobs page will look like this:
How do I disable publishing in certain projects?
Add the following to the project settings (works only in sbt 1)
skip in publish := true
How do I publish cross-built projects?
Make sure that projects that compile against multiple Scala versions declare the
crossScalaVersions setting in build.sbt, for example
lazy val core = project.settings( ... crossScalaVersions := List("2.12.6", "2.11.12") )
+publishSigned (default value for
CI_RELEASE) will then publish that project for both 2.11 and 2.12.
Can I depend on Maven Central releases immediately?
Yes! As soon as CI "closes" the staging repository you can depend on those artifacts with
resolvers += Resolver.sonatypeRepo("releases")
(optional) Use the coursier command line interface to check if a release was successful without opening sbt
coursier fetch com.geirsson:scalafmt-cli_2.12:1.5.0 -r sonatype:releases
How do I depend on the SNAPSHOT releases?
Add the following setting
resolvers += Resolver.sonatypeRepo("snapshots")
(optional) With coursier you can do the same thing with
coursier fetch com.geirsson:scalafmt-cli_2.12:1.5.0-SNAPSHOT -r sonatype:snapshots
What about other CIs environments than Travis?
You can try sbt-release-early.
Alternatively, the source code for sbt-ci-release is only ~50 loc, see CiReleasePlugin.scala. You can copy-paste it to
project/ of your build and tweak the settings for your environment.
Does sbt-ci-release work for sbt 0.13?
Yes, but the plugin is not released for sbt 0.13. The plugin source code is a single file which you can copy-paste into
project/CiReleasePlugin.scala of your 0.13 build. Make sure you also
addSbtPlugin(sbt-dynver + sbt-sonatype + sbt-gpg + sbt-git).
How do I publish sbt plugins?
You can publish sbt plugins to Maven Central like a normal library, no custom setup required. It is not necessary to publish sbt plugins to Bintray.
java.io.IOException: secret key ring doesn't start with secret key tag: tag 0xffffffff
- Make sure you exported the correct
LONG_IDfor the gpg key.
- Make sure the base64 exported secret GPG key is a single line (not line wrapped). If you use the GNU coreutils
base64(default on Ubuntu), pass in the
-w0flag to disable line wrapping.
https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots 400: Bad Requestjava.io.IOException: PUT operation to URL
This error happens when you publish a non-SNAPSHOT version to the snapshot repository. If you pushed a tag, make sure the tag version number starts with
v. This error can happen if you tag with the version
0.1.0 instead of
java.io.IOException: Access to URL was refused by the server: Unauthorized
Make sure that
SONATYPE_PASSWORD uses proper escaping if it contains special characters as documented on Travis Environment Variables.
Failed: signature-staging, failureMessage:Missing Signature:
Make sure to upgrade to the latest sbt-ci-release, which could fix this error. This failure can happen in case you push a git tag immediately after merging a branch into master. A manual workaround is to log into https://oss.sonatype.org/ and drop the failing repository from the web UI. Alternatively, you can run
sonatypeDrop <staging-repo-id> from the sbt shell instead of using the web UI.
There exist great alternatives to sbt-ci-release that may work better for your setup.
- sbt-release-early: additionally supports publishing to Bintray and other CI environments than Travis.
- sbt-rig: additionally supporting publishing code coverage reports, managing test dependencies and publishing docs.
The biggest difference between these and sbt-ci-release wrt to publishing is the base64 encoded
PGP_SECRET variable. I never managed to get the encrypted files and openssl working.