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Typeful runtime for eventsourced behaviors

Aecor is an opinionated library to help building scalable, distributed eventsourced services written in Scala. It uses Akka for distribution and fault tolerance. With the help of Cats and Shapeless to reach type safety.

Aecor works on Scala 2.11 and 2.12 with Java 8.

The name Aecor (lat. ocean) is inspired by a vision of modern distributed applications, as an ocean of messages with pure behaviors floating in it.

Installing Aecor

To start using Aecor Akka Persistence Runtime add the following to your build.sbt file:

scalaVersion := "2.12.4"
scalacOptions += "-Ypartial-unification"
addCompilerPlugin("org.scalameta" % "paradise" % "3.0.0-M10" cross CrossVersion.full)
libraryDependencies += "io.aecor" %% "akka-peristence-runtime" % "0.17.1"

Entity Behavior Definition

In this short guide I'll show you how to define and deploy your first event sourced behavior on runtime backed by Akka Persistence and Akka Cluster Sharding.

Each entity needs an identity, so let's start with identifier type:

final case class SubscriptionId(value: java.util.UUID) extends AnyVal

Then define what actions we're able to perform on Subscription

import aecor.macros.boopickleWireProtocol
import boopickle.Default._

trait Subscription[F[_]] {
  def createSubscription(userId: String, productId: String, planId: String): F[Unit]
  def pauseSubscription: F[Unit]
  def resumeSubscription: F[Unit]
  def cancelSubscription: F[Unit]

You may notice that there is no SubscriptionId involved, and it's okay because this interface describes actions of a concrete Subscription and entity behavior should not by any know about its identity, it's behavior should be defined by its state.

There is an abstract type F[_] which stays for an effect (see Rob Norris, Functional Programming with Effects) that would be performed during each action invocation.

Also being polymorphic in effect improves the reuse of this interface, you'll see it later.

@boopickleWireProtocol - is a macro annotation that automates derivation of a WireProtocol, which is used by Akka Runtime to encode and decode actions and corresponding responses.

We are event sourced, so let's define our events:

import aecor.runtime.akkapersistence.serialization._

sealed abstract class SubscriptionEvent extends Product with Serializable
object SubscriptionEvent {
  final case class SubscriptionCreated(userId: String, productId: String, planId: String) extends SubscriptionEvent
  final case object SubscriptionPaused extends SubscriptionEvent
  final case object SubscriptionResumed extends SubscriptionEvent
  final case object SubscriptionCancelled extends SubscriptionEvent

  implicit val persistentEncoder: PersistentEncoder[SubscriptionEvent] = ???
  implicit val persistentDecoder: PersistentDecoder[SubscriptionEvent] = ???

I've intentionally omitted implementation of PersistentEncoder and PersistentDecoder, because providing generic JSON encoding would be careless as persistent event schema requires your attention and I would recommend to use Protobuf or other formats that support evolution.

Let's define a state on which Subscription operate.

import SubscriptionState._

final case class SubscriptionState(status: Status) {
  def applyEvent(e: SubscriptionEvent): Folded[Subscription] = e match {
    case SubscriptionCreated(_, _, _) =>
    case SubscriptionPaused =>
      subscription.copy(status = Paused).next
    case SubscriptionResumed =>
      subscription.copy(status = Active).next
    case SubscriptionCancelled =>
      subscription.copy(status = Cancelled).next

object SubscriptionState {
  sealed abstract class Status extends Product with Serializable
  object Status {
    final case object Active extends Status
    final case object Paused extends Status
    final case object Cancelled extends Status
  def init(e: SubscriptionEvent): Folded[SubscriptionState] = e match {
    case SubscriptionCreated(userId, productId, planId) =>
    case _ => impossible

Pay attention to Folded datatype, it has to constructor:

  • Impossible is used to express impossible folds of events, so that you don't throw exceptions.
  • Next(a: A) is used to express successful event application.

Now, the final part before we launch.'

As I said earlier Subscription[F[_]] is polymorphic in its effect type.

Our effect would be and Actions[S, E, A] which says that given some state S it will produce a List[E] of events and a result A Other stuff like state recovery and event persistence is held by Akka Persistence Runtime.

So lets define SubscritpionActions

object SubscriptionActions extends Subscription[Action[Option[Subscription], SubscriptionEvent, ?]] {
  def createSubscription(userId: String, productId: String, planId: String): Action[Option[Subscription], SubscriptionEvent, Unit] = 
    Action {
      case Some(subscription) =>
        // Do nothing reply with ()
        List.empty -> ()
      case None =>
        // Produce event and reply with ()
        List(SubscriptionCreated(userId, productId, planId)) -> ()
  def pauseSubscription: Action[Option[Subscription], SubscriptionEvent, Unit] = 
    Action {
      case Some(subscription) if subscription.status == Active =>
        List(SubscriptionPaused) -> ()
      case _ =>
        List.empty -> ()
  def resumeSubscription: Action[Option[Subscription], SubscriptionEvent, Unit] = 
    Action {
      case Some(subscription) if subscription.status == Paused =>
        List(SubscriptionResumed) -> ()
      case _ =>
        List.empty -> ()
  def cancelSubscription: Action[Option[Subscription], SubscriptionEvent, Unit] = 
    Action {
      case Some(subscription) =>
        List(SubscriptionCancelled) -> ()
      case _ =>
        List.empty -> ()

Now that actions are define we're ready to deploy

import monix.eval.Task
import aecor.runtime.akkapersistence._

val system = ActorSystem("system")

val journalAdapter = CassandraJournalAdapter(system)

val runtime = AkkaPersistenceRuntime(system, journalAdapter)

val behavior = EventsourcedBehavior.optional(

val deploySubscriptions: Task[SubscriptionId => Subscription[Task]] =


val journalQuery = runtime.journal