jducoeur / jsext

Commonly-useful extensions for Scala.js, particularly for facade development

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jsext

Commonly-useful extensions for Scala.js

In the course of developing Querki, including quite a lot of complex facades, I've found some common problems. This is a tiny library to help make it easier to deal with those.

Installation

To use jsext, add this line to your Scala.js project's libraryDependencies:

"org.querki" %%% "querki-jsext" % "0.8"

RichFuture

jsext takes advantage of things you can do in Scala.js that aren't as easy in the JVM, to enhance Future with a few nice features.

withTimeout

If you build a complex application in Scala.js, you will find that asynchronous programming winds up front-and-center. There are basically two ways to deal with this: either you make things deeply reactive (usually using the Facebook React library), or you do a lot of Future composition.

Future composition is actually quite easy in Scala.js, and works well, but there is one key weakness: Scala's standard Future implementation has no concept of timeout. This is mildly inconvenient if you want your UI to be able to do things like time out requests, and it's a big problem if you are trying to test this Futures-based code using a package like utest.

So RichFuture (which is available implicitly if you import org.querki.jsext._) adds several methods to address this. failAfter() is the general case, and allows you to specify the timeout duration and the message to give in case of failure; the two overloads of withTimeout are simpler variations of that. All of them have the same general purpose: they take a Future, and return a version of that Future that will fail (with a TimeoutException) after the specified amount of time.

If you are using utest, and your tests end with Futures, I strongly recommend injecting one of these timeouts into the test. It essentially allows you to assert that the Future completes, and avoids inconvenient hangs when it doesn't.

notYet

This is sort of the inverse of withTimeout, and is also motivated largely by testing. It is best explained with an example.

Say that you have some code along roughly these lines:

def setup(watcher:Watcher):PreppedStuff = {
  val readyFuture:Future[ReadyInfo] = remoteConnection.doSomeRemoteStuff()
  readyFuture.foreach { readyInfo =>
    finalSetup(readyInfo)
    watcher.fullyReady(this)
  }
  val prepped = doSomeLocalPrep()
  prepped
}

That looks a bit specific, but the broad strokes are pretty common in Web clients: you have some code that needs to go do some slow remote work before signaling readiness.

That all works great, until you go to do unit tests. Say that you have a stub implementation of RemoteConnection, which returns ReadyInfo synchronously -- often the easiest way to do things. But that means that watcher.fullyReady() is going to get called before setup() returns, often causing strange errors.

You can fix this by restructuring your code, but that's often a pain, and can cause contortions that make your code messier just for testing. What you really want is to simply ensure that readyFuture doesn't fire synchronously, because your code is structured that way. That's where notYet comes in. You simply change your foreach like this:

  readyFuture.notYet.foreach { readyInfo =>
    finalSetup(readyInfo)
    watcher.fullyReady(this)
  }

notYet is a method on RichFuture that simply guarantees that the Future it returns will not be complete right now. If the real Future is still pending, it returns that. If the real Future is complete, it injects a minimal 1-ms delay, and returns a Future that will be complete after that time.

Alternatively, if you want to put the not-synchronous guarantee into the test code and not touch the real code, you can use notYet there:

class RemoteConnectionStub {
  def doSomeRemoteStuff() = {
    Future.successful(new ReadyInfo()).notYet
  }
}

Note that this pattern would be trickier in the JVM, where there is no native scheduler and there are dangerous potential race conditions. But in the single-threaded JS environment, it works nicely, and allows you to guarantee that a code path will be asynchronous, so you don't have to worry about it getting screwed up by a synchronous return.

(Note that this depends on setTimeout(), which AFAIK is non-standard but more or less universally implemented.)

JSOptionBuilder

Note: JSOptionBuilder is semi-deprecated at this point -- I think that the @ScalaJSDefined annotation now covers all of the use cases that this was created for adequately. I haven't yet tested that in depth, though. If you come up with examples that this can cope with, and JSOptionBuilder really can't, I'd be interested in hearing them.

JSOptionBuilder is designed to deal with a common problem in building facades, especially facades of JQuery widgets.

A typical such facade is usually initialized with an "options" object that defines its exact behavior. The problem is that these options objects often contain many fields -- 20-40 fields are not unusual -- some of which are polymorphic in a way that is hard to represent in Scala. (Since JavaScript is loosely typed, you can have polymorphic unions simply by accepting several different types for a parameter, and testing what actually got passed in to figure out the type.) The result is a combinatoric explosion, where a single options object could potentially require hundreds, even thousands of strongly-typed constructors in order to properly represent it.

There are several potential ways to deal with this problem. In JSOptionBuilder, we choose not to even try to define a Scala constructor for the options object. Instead, we build the options object up through a series of chained function calls. That tames the polymorphism, since each field can be a separate overloaded function.

Defining a JSOptionBuilder

JSOptionBuilder is easiest to understand with a worked-out example. In this case, we are going to use jQuery UI's Dialog widget, which has about 30 fields. (You can find the full definition of this Widget in the jQuery UI API documentation. The facade of the widget itself is quite simple:

@js.native
trait JQueryUIDialogFacade extends js.Object {
  def dialog(options:DialogOptions):JQuery = js.native
}

That is, this says that the referenced jQuery object should be considered a Dialog, using the specified DialogOptions. All the work comes in defining DialogOptions.

To begin with, we provide three related definitions:

@js.native
trait DialogOptions extends js.Object
object DialogOptions extends DialogOptionBuilder(noOpts)
class DialogOptionBuilder(val dict:OptMap) extends JSOptionBuilder[DialogOptions, DialogOptionBuilder](new DialogOptionBuilder(_)) {
}

The DialogOptions trait is what we're trying to produce: a facade for the options object that we'll pass into the dialog() function above.

The DialogOptions companion object is an empty DialogOptions. It is legal to pass into dialog() (after the implicit conversions we will talk about later), but is nothing but defaults.

All the interesting stuff goes into the DialogOptionBuilder class. Into this, we put a bunch of declarations, one for each overload of each field, like these:

  def appendTo(v:String) = jsOpt("appendTo", v)

  def autoOpen(v:Boolean) = jsOpt("autoOpen", v)

  def buttons(v:js.Dictionary[js.Function0[Any]]) = jsOpt("buttons", v)
  def buttons(v:js.Array[js.Object]) = jsOpt("buttons", v)

That is, for each field, we define a method that takes the type that is legal to pass into that field. We pass that value into jsOpt(), which returns a new DialogOptionBuilder with that value added -- everything is immutable, and you chain these calls together to get the fully-constructed options object. If a field accepts multiple types, then you define one overload of the function for each type.

Note that the JSOptionBuilder companion object includes an implicit def, which converts from the Builder to the target trait.

Defining a JSOptionBuilder with inheritance

For hierarchical option structures you can inherit options from other classes. Then you have to split out all jsOpt calls into traits and write:

@ScalaJSDefined
trait DialogOptions extends WidgetOptions
object DialogOptions extends DialogOptionsBuilder(noOpts)
class DialogOptionsBuilder(val dict: OptMap) extends JSOptionsBuilder[DialogOptions, DialogOptionsBuilder](new DialogOptionsBuilder(_)) with DialogSetters[DialogOptions, DialogOptionsBuilder]
trait DialogSetters[T <: js.Object, B <: JSOptionsOpts[T,_]] extends WidgetSetters[T, B] {
  def title(v: String) = jsOpt("title", v)
}

@ScalaJSDefined
trait WidgetOptions extends js.Object
object WidgetOptions extends WidgetOptionsBulder(noOpts)
class WidgetOptionsBuilder(val dict: OptMap) extends JSOptionsBuilder[WidgetOptions, WidgetOptionsBuilder](new WidgetOptionsBuilder(_)) with WidgetSetters[WidgetOptions, WidgetOptionsBuilder]
trait WidgetSetters[T <: js.Object, B <: JSOptionsOpts[T,_]] extends JSOptionSetter[T, B] {
  def height(v: Int) = jsOpt("height", v)
}

Now both title and height are available for DialogOptions, but for WidgetOptions only height is available.

Using the JSOptionBuilder

Using the resulting class is done with chained function calls instead of a constructor, but the number of characters you actually type is roughly the same. A typical call looks like this:

val asDialog = $(elem).dialog(DialogOptions.
  title(dialogTitle).
  height(height).width(width).
  buttons(buttonMap)
)

That is, we start with the DialogOptions object defined above (which, remember, is the completely empty default options). We call the functions for the fields we want to set, chaining them together. The implicit def detects that we are passing this into dialog(), so it converts it from DialogOptionBuilder into DialogOptions.

The resulting code is reasonably concise, and strongly-typed: in good Scala fashion, type errors will be usually be caught in the IDE.

Summary

If you are building a facade called Foo that takes an options object, you would usually define the following code:

@js.native
trait FooFacade extends js.Object {
  def foo(options:FooOptions):JQuery = js.native
}
@js.native
trait FooOptions extends js.Object
object FooOptions extends FooOptionBuilder(noOpts)
class FooOptionBuilder(val dict:OptMap) extends JSOptionBuilder[FooOptions, FooOptionBuilder](new FooOptionBuilder(_)) {
  def field1(v:someType) = jsOpt("field1", v)

  def field2(v:someType) = jsOpt("field2", v)
  def field2(v:someOtherType) = jsOpt("field2", v)

  // ... one jsOpt for each overload of each field
}

That's pretty much it. There's a little boilerplate, but not too much, and the resulting facade works well.

Obviously, the details may vary -- use common sense when applying this pattern. But it works as described for a large number of jQuery widgets.

JSOptionBuilder vs. ScalaJSDefined

As of Scala.js release 0.6.5, there is a @ScalaJSDefined annotation, which lets you create JavaScript classes from Scala.js. In principle, this seems like it should obviate the need for JSOptionBuilder. In practice, there are some tradeoffs.

For simpler facades, and especially when you just need to create a JavaScript object with a few fields that always need to be filled in, @ScalaJSDefined is probably the best way to go: it lets you define the structure of the JS object with relatively little boilerplate, and the same trait or class can be used for both creating those objects and (if needed) reading native-JS versions of them. It's nice and easy.

However, for jQuery-style configuration objects, @ScalaJSDefined works particularly poorly, for several reasons. Remember that these config objects typically contain a relatively large number of fields, all of which are optional. For this reason, you don't want to use a @ScalaJSDefined trait to define one, because then you would have to fill in all of the fields at the call site every time you called it. (Note that these traits differ from conventional Scala traits in that they have to be 'pure' -- they can't define default values.)

A @ScalaJSDefined class works better for this, since it does allow you to provide defaults. But remember that all of the fields are optional. This means that they all have to be defined as UndefOr[T], instead of their simple types. And you have a tradeoff to make, in how you declare the fields vs. how you fill them in. If you want to go pure-functional, you need a bit more boilerplate at the call site than I prefer, like this (making up a JQuery-style config object similar to the example in the Scala.js documentation; for sake of argument, say the default position is (0,0)):

@ScalaJSDefined
class PositionConfig extends js.Object
{
  val x:UndefOr[Int] = undefined
  val y:UndefOr[Int] = undefined
}
...
val positionedThing = $(myThing).withPosition {
  override val x = 100
}

To get rid of having to say override val for every field, you have to sacrifice purity:

@ScalaJSDefined
class PositionConfig extends js.Object
{
  var x:UndefOr[Int] = undefined
  var y:UndefOr[Int] = undefined
}
...
val positionedThing = $(myThing).withPosition {
  x = 100
}

That is, by using var instead of val, we get a more concise call-site syntax at the risk of using mutable fields.

Also, remember that it is very common for jQuery options to be Union types. JSOptionBuilder lets you deal with this by adding overloaded setters: you just define separate entry points for the different types. @ScalaJSDefined doesn't allow that: you can only have one entry point with a given name. Now, Scala.js 0.6.5 allows you to define union types with the new js.| operator, and that often works quite nicely. But | doesn't always play nicely with UndefOf: getting the signature correct, so that the field can contain any of several types or undefined, can be tricky. (In particular, when the parameter is a function type, you can get beyond the capabilities of Scala's type inferencer, and find that you have to put in excess type ascriptions at the call site.)

The final problem doesn't arise in every situation, but is insuperable when it does. jQuery has a core function named $.isPlainObject, which it uses to distinguish between DOM nodes and "normal" JavaScript objects. By its definition, @ScalaJSDefined objects are not "plain". The result is somewhat unpredictable behavior -- some jQuery libraries simply won't work if you pass in @ScalaJSDefined parameters. (As of Scala.js 0.6.9, I believe this last point is no longer true, but I haven't tried it out myself yet.)

So this isn't a slam-dunk argument either way. @ScalaJSDefined easier to set up, and can be used to for interpreting native JS objects as well as creating them, but is either wordier at the call site (if you use the pure version), or requires that you use mutable fields, and you have to be very careful with your signature definitions. And it won't always work for jQuery facades. It's up to you, as the facade designer, to decide whether you prefer that, or the extra design-side boilerplate required by JSOptionBuilder.

TO DO

Some of the boilerplate involved in using JSOptionBuilder could probably be tamed with a few macros.

License

Copyright (c) 2015 Querki Inc. (justin at querki dot net)

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.