iheartradio / happy-path

A small functional programming library that allows developers focus on the happy path of the runtime execution.


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FutureEither is to unify Futures of different types (e.g., Future[T], Future[Option[T]], Future[Try[T]], Future[Boolean]). It can be seen as a wrapper around Future[Either[_, _]], where the Right side of the Either is the successful result T and the Left side is a Reason explaining why the computation failed.

Example usage

To use FutureEither, it's recommended to use the wildcard import,

import com.iheart.happy.path._
import com.iheart.happy.path.FutureEither._
import concurrent.{Future, duration}, duration._

This provides all the instances needed for things such as map/flatMap (otherwise you might see various could not find implicit value compilation errors).

Once imported, you can use various helpers:

import scala.util.Success

// The expressions below each yield a `FutureEither[Int]` containing a `Right(1)`
val f1 = right(1)
val f2 = ofFuture(Future.successful(1))
val f3 = ofTry(Success(1))
val f4 = ofOption(Some(1))
val f5 = ofFutureOption(Future.successful(Some(1)))

// If we wanted to add some of these futures together:
val f123 = for {
  v1 <- f1
  v2 <- f2
  v3 <- f3
} yield v1 + v2 + v3
scala> import concurrent.Await //only to show result, don't use Await in real code
import concurrent.Await

scala> Await.result(f123.toEither, 10.seconds)
res4: Either[com.iheart.happy.path.Reason,Int] = Right(3)

f123 is a FutureEither[Int] containing the results of f1, f2, f3 added together (3).

Now let's say somewhere we encounter a failure:

val failedF: FutureEither[Int] = left(RegularReason("Something happened"))

val f45 = for {
  v4 <- f4
  failed <- failedF
  v5 <- f5
} yield v4 + v5
scala> Await.result(f45.toEither, 10.seconds) //again don't do Await in real code
res7: Either[com.iheart.happy.path.Reason,Int] = Left(com.iheart.happy.path.RegularReason)

The result of f45 is a failed FutureEither[Int] containing a Left[RegularReason[String]].

Some other usage examples can be found in the tests.


When a FutureEither fails, usually the reason for failure needs to be propagated back to the client, or matched to figure out how to recover from it. Poweramp defines the following Reasons for failure:


When the underlying Future fails because of an exception:

val failedF = Future.failed(new RuntimeException("Something happened"))
val failedFE = ofFuture(failedF)

In the above example, failedFE is a FutureEither containing a Left[ExceptionReason[RuntimeException]]. This will be propagated to the client as a 500 error.

OptionalItemNotFound / ItemNotFound

There are two different cases we want to handle when an optional item returns None.

If it's a requested resource that makes sense to be absent (for example, user requests a track ID that doesn't exist in the database) we use OptionalItemNotFound to propagate the error as a 404.

Otherwise, if it's an internal error (some essential resource that we expect to exist, but doesn't), we use ItemNotFound, which will propagate as a 500 error.

val opt: Option[Int] = None
val optFE1 = ofOptional(opt)
val optFE2 = ofOption(opt)

val optF = Future.successful(opt)
val optFE3 = ofFutureOptional(optF, OptionalItemNotFound("This thing not found"))
val optFE4 = ofFutureOption(optF)

In the above example, optFE1 and optFE3 are equivalent, and both contain a Left[OptionalItemNotFound]. optFE2 and optFE4 are equivalent, and both contain a Left[ItemNotFound].


If the user provides invalid input, we want to return a list of all the validation errors.



For computations that fail for inconsequential reasons (usually internal), we use RegularReason to avoid logging them.