dataoperandz / cassper

Schema migrations tool for Apache Cassandra that can be used with JVM applications

Version Matrix


Cassper background

Cassper is a schema migration tool for Apache Cassandra. It can be used as as Apache Cassandra schema change management tool and schema version controller in JVM based applications. Cassper has written with Scala and designed based on Flayway schema migration tool(Flyway mainly targetted for relational databases). Cassper schema migrations can be used for DDL changes(CREATE/ALTER/DROP statements of tables, udts, keyspaces) and Simple data changes(CRUD operations in tables).

Cassper migration scripts

Cassper schema migrations scripts are written in CQL. This makes it easy to get started and leverage any existing scripts, tools and skills. It gives you access to the full set of capabilities of your Cassandra database and eliminates the need to understand any intermediate translation layer. Cassper schema migration scripts need to put in the src/main/resources/cassper directory in your sbt project. The schema migration script needs to follow a specific format(the format is similar to Flyway migration script format). Following is the format of schema migration script V_1_2__create_table_account.cql.


When running the migration, Cassper will executes each and every migration scripts in the src/main/resources/cassper director. The migration script executing order is determined by the version number. For an example 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 etc. Following are some example migration scripts that can be put in src/main/resources/cassper directory.

❯❯ ls -al src/main/resources/cassper

V_1_1__create_udt_trans.cql migration script

  execer TEXT,
  id TEXT,
  actor TEXT,
  message TEXT,
  digsig TEXT,
  timestamp TIMESTAMP

V_1_2__create_table_accounts.cql migration script

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS rahasak.accounts (
  id TEXT,
  name TEXT,
  phone TEXT,
  email TEXT,
  disabled BOOLEAN,
  timestamp TIMESTAMP,


V_1_3__alter_table_accounts.cql migration script

ALTER TABLE rahasak.accounts ADD address TEXT;

Cassper dependency

The latest dependency version of Cassper can be found in maven central. Following are the Maven and Sbt dependencies of Cassper.

<!-- Maven dependency for Java applications -->
// Sbt dependency for Scala applications
libraryDependencies += "io.github.dataoperandz" % "cassper" % "0.4"

Run migrations

When running the migration, Cassper scans the migration scripts in the src/main/resources/cassper directory and execute them. Cassper stores executed migration script information in schema_version table. This table reside in the Cassandra keyspace where migration is running. Once migration script executed, Cassper saves the migration script information in schema_version table. When next time executing the migration it checks the schema_version table and finds the executed migration script information. If migration script executed one time, it won’t execute it again. Cassper not allowed to changes the previously executed migration scripts. It stores hash of the executed migration scripts on schema_version table and compare them when next time executing the migration. If script altered(that means hash is changed) it will raise an exception. Following is the way to run the migration. Cassper().builder() required com.datastax.driver.core.Session. You can pass the com.datastax.driver.core.Session instance which is using in your application to the Cassper.

// session - com.datastax.driver.core.Session
// rahasak - keyspace name
val builder = new Cassper().build("rahasak", session)

Test migrations

You can test the Cassper migration in your local environment by running Main method of the application(e.g with IntelliJ IDEA). In production environment you can build a .jar file of the application and run it with Docker kind of service. Then Cassper scans the .jar file and finds the migration scripts on src/main/resources/cassper directory and execute them.