celadari / json-logic-scala

Build complex rules, serialize them as JSON, and execute them in Scala

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Json Logic Scala

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Json Logic Scala


Build complex rules, serialize them as JSON, and execute them in Scala.

Json-logic-scala enables you to serialize in JSON format logical expressions. It also enables you to load a scala object from a logical expression/JSON.

Due to Scala's strong static typed language nature, json-logic-scala requires JSON to add tell type in json.

Why would you use json-logic-scala ?

The JsonLogic format is designed to allow you to share rules (logic) between front-end and back-end code (regardless of language difference), even to store logic along with a record in a database.

Logic that has been exported from another language can be applied quickly on scala.

Scala Versions

This project is compiled, tested, and published for the following Scala versions:

  • 2.11.12
  • 2.12.6
  • 2.13.2

Table of Contents

  1. Installation

  2. Main concepts: Boolean-Algebra-Tree

    2.1 ComposeLogic: Internal Node

    2.2 ValueLogic: Leaf Node

  3. Example

  4. Read/Write json

    4.1 Type information

    4.2 Default built-in types

    4.3 Read json: Define Deserializer

    4.4 Write json: Define Serializer

  5. Evaluating logical expression: eval method

  6. Define custom operators

  7. Define EvaluatorValueLogic

  8. Define objects as Java services

  9. Scaladoc API

  10. Contributors

1. Installation

To get started, add json-logic-scala as a dependency to your project:

  • sbt

    libraryDependencies += "com.celadari" %% "json-logic-scala" % "2.0"
  • Gradle

    compile group: 'com.celadari', name: 'json-logic-scala_2.12', version: '2.0'
  • Maven

    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.celadari</groupId>
      <artifactId>play-json_2.12</artifactId>
      <version>2.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

Json-logic-scala supports Scala 2.11 and 2.12. Choosing the right JAR is automatically managed in sbt. If you're using Gradle or Maven then you need to use the correct version in the artifactId.

2. Main concepts: Boolean-Algebra-Tree

Boolean expressions are complex boolean statements composed of atoms, unary, binary and multiple operators. Atoms are assigned a value, and can be fed to a binary or unary expression. For example, the logical expression

drawing

can be parsed to the following Abstract Syntax Tree:

drawing

A tree representation of the logical expression is very convenient. After isolating the outermost operator of the expression (the operator which is enclosed with the fewest amount of parentheses), the logical expression can be split on said operator into different branches representing themselves logical expressions. These different expressions can be further split into different branches until reaching leaves Node which represent single atoms.

Evaluating the logical expression in its tree representation is evaluated recursively. Each Internal Node needs to have its children nodes evaluated before being evaluated. Leaf Nodes represent variables/values.

A boolean decision tree is represented by the JsonLogicCore class - which has two subtypes:

2.1 ComposeLogic: Internal Node.

A ComposeLogic class is an Internal Node in the boolean-algebra-tree. It is defined by two fields:

  • operator: String the codename of the operator.
  • conditions: Array[JsonLogicCore] array of sub-conditions this node applies to.

2.2 ValueLogic: Leaf Node.

It represents a basic value for an operand in order to produce a condition. It is defined by two fields.

  • operator: String whose value is supposed to be always "var".
  • valueOpt: Option[T] the value object itself to feed an operand.
  • typeOpt: Option[TypeValue] the type associated to this value.
  • variableNameOpt: Option[String] name of variable it references if inside composition function.
  • pathNameOpt: Option[String] key associated to this value in json snippet.

3. Example

Let's suppose you have a parquet/csv file on disk and you want to remember/transfer filtering rules before loading it.

price (€) quantity label label2 clientID date
54 2 t-shirts t-shirts 245698 2018-01-12 09:12:00
68 1 pants shoes 478965 2019-07-24 15:24:00
10 2 sockets hat 478963 2020-02-14 16:22:00
........... .......... .......... .......... .......... .....................

Let's suppose we are only interested in rows which satisfy logical expression:

drawing

If you want to store the logic (logical expression) in an universal format that can be shared between scala, R, python code you can store in jsonLogic format.

For the logic:

{
  "and": [{
            "<=": [
                    {"var": "colA", "type": "column"},
                    {"var": "valA", "type": "value"}
                  ]
          },
          {
            "!=": [
                    {"var": "colB", "type": "column"},
                    {"var": "colC", "type": "column"}
                  ]
          }
         ]
}

For the values:

{
    "colA": {"name": "price (€)"},
    "valA": {"value": 20, "type": "int"},
    "colB": {"name": "label"},
    "colC": {"name": "label2"}
}

4. Read/Write json

To use Json Logic Scala, you should start by defining or importing a JsonLogicCore instance (we'll see how to evaluate it latter below).

4.1 Type information

Type is annotated after the field "type" in a "var" operator JSON (i.e. the leaf node in corresponding syntax tree).

Simple Type

A simple type is simply defined by its codename field value.

[{
    "...": [
            {"var":  "price_value", "type":  {"codename":  "int"}}
    ]
},
{
    "price_value": ...
}]

Higher Type (option|array|map)

A higher type is a composition of simple and/or higher types. A higher type represents generic types in Scala like arrays, options, and maps.

It is recursively defined by its codename field value and its paramType field value.

**

In the following example, the variable price_values is to be parsed as an Array[Int]

[{
    "...": [
            {"var":  "price_values", "type":  {"codename":  "array", "paramType": {"codename":  "int"}}}
    ]
},
{
    "price_values": ...
}]

4.2 Default built-in types

Json-logic-scala comes with built-in naming convention for basic types

"type" field Scala type
"byte" Byte
"short" Short
"int" Int
"long" Long
"string" String
"float" Float
"double" Double
"boolean" Boolean
"array" Array
"map" Map
"option" Option

4.3 Read json: Define Deserializer

The Deserializer utility class converts JsonLogic-Typed data into Scala data structure.

Configure the Deserializer class with the DeserializerConf object. This object defines how types in JsonLogic-Typed map to a Scala data structure. If no custom object is provided, the default DeserializerConf is used .

import play.api.libs.json.Json

val jsonString: String = ...
implicit val deserializerConf = DeserializerConf.createConf(...)
implicit val deserializer = new Deserializer()
val jsonLogicCore = deserializer.deserialize(jsonString)

4.4 Write json: Define Serializer

The Serializer utility class converts a Scala data structure to JsonLogic-Typed data.

Configure theSerializer class with the SerializerConf object. This object defines how Scala data structures map to the JsonLogic-Typed format. If no custom object is provided, the default SerializerConf is used .

import play.api.libs.json.Json

val jsonLogicCore: JsonLogicCore = ...
implicit val serializerConf = SerializerConf.createConf(...)
implicit val serializer = new Serializer()
val jsonString = serializer.serialize(jsonLogicCore)

5. Evaluating logical expression: eval method

Evaluating a logical expression and getting its result is the main goal in most cases. Generally, logic/rules are received from another language/application and we want to apply this logic to our Scala program. Evaluating the logical expression is performed by applying a reduce function to the boolean-algebra-tree.

6. Define custom operators

For more information please check online documentation.

7. Define EvaluatorValueLogic

For more information please check online documentation.

8. Define objects as Java services

For more information please check online documentation.

9. Scaladoc API

API Documentation available here.

10. Contributors

  • Charles-Edouard LADARI
  • Matt DODSON

License

Json Logic Scala is licensed under the MIT License.

MIT License

Copyright (c) 2019 celadari

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The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

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